Projections of population growth

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World population growth 1700–2100

Population projections are attempts to show how the human population living today will change in the future.[1] These projections are an important input to forecasts of the population's impact on this planet and humanity's future well-being.[2] Models of population growth take trends in human development, and apply projections into the future.[3] These models use trend-based-assumptions about how populations will respond to economic, social and technological forces to understand how they will affect fertility and mortality, and thus population growth.[3]

The 2019 forecast from the United Nation's Population Division (made before the COVID-19 pandemic) shows that world population growth peaked at 2.1% per year in 1968, has since dropped to 1.1%, and could drop even further to 0.1% by 2100, a growth rate not seen since pre-industrial revolution days.[4] Based on this, the UN Population Division expects the world population, which is at 7.8 billion as of 2020, to level out around 2100 at 10.9 billion (the median line),[5][6] assuming a continuing decrease in the global average fertility rate from 2.5 births per woman during the 2015–2020 period to 1.9 in 2095–2100, according to the medium-variant projection.[7]

However, estimates outside of the United Nations have put forward alternative models based on additional downward pressure on fertility (such as successful implementation of education and family planning goals in the Sustainable Development Goals) which could result in peak population during the 2060-2070 period rather than later.[3][8]

According to the UN, about two-thirds of the predicted growth in population between 2020 and 2050 will take place in Africa.[9] It is projected that 50% of births in the 5-year period 2095-2100 will be in Africa.[10] Other organizations project lower levels of population growth in Africa based particularly on improvement in women’s education and met needs for family planning.[11]

By 2100, the UN projects the population in Sub-Saharan Africa will reach 3.8 billion, IHME projects 3.1 billion, and IIASA is the lowest at 2.6 billion. In contrast to the UN projections, the models of fertility developed by IHME and IIASA incorporate women’s educational attainment, and in the case of IHME, also consider met need for family planning.[12]

World population prospects, 2019

Because of population momentum the global population will continue to grow, although at a steadily slower rate, for the remainder of this century, but the main driver of long-term future population growth will be the evolution of the global average fertility rate.[7]

Table of UN projections[edit]

The United Nation's Population Division publishes high & low estimates (by gender) & density.

UN World Population Projections (Average Estimates, 2019 revision) [13]
Year Total population
2021 7,874,965,732
2022 7,953,952,577
2023 8,031,800,338
2024 8,108,605,255
2025 8,184,437,453
2026 8,259,276,651
2027 8,333,078,318
2028 8,405,863,301
2029 8,477,660,723
2030 8,548,487,371
2031 8,618,349,454
2032 8,687,227,873
2033 8,755,083,512
2034 8,821,862,705
2035 8,887,524,229
2036 8,952,048,885
2037 9,015,437,616
2038 9,077,693,645
2039 9,138,828,562
2040 9,198,847,382
2041 9,257,745,483
2042 9,315,508,153
2043 9,372,118,247
2044 9,427,555,382
2045 9,481,803,272
2046 9,534,854,673
2047 9,586,707,749
2048 9,637,357,320
2049 9,686,800,146
2050 9,735,033,900
2051 9,782,061,758
2052 9,827,885,441
2053 9,872,501,562
2054 9,915,905,251
2055 9,958,098,746
2056 9,999,085,167
2057 10,038,881,262
2058 10,077,518,080
2059 10,115,036,360
2060 10,151,469,683
2061 10,186,837,209
2062 10,221,149,040
2063 10,254,419,004
2064 10,286,658,354
2065 10,317,879,315
2066 10,348,098,079
2067 10,377,330,830
2068 10,405,590,532
2069 10,432,889,136
2070 10,459,239,501
2071 10,484,654,858
2072 10,509,150,402
2073 10,532,742,861
2074 10,555,450,003
2075 10,577,288,195
2076 10,598,274,172
2077 10,618,420,909
2078 10,637,736,819
2079 10,656,228,233
2080 10,673,904,454
2081 10,690,773,335
2082 10,706,852,426
2083 10,722,171,375
2084 10,736,765,444
2085 10,750,662,353
2086 10,763,874,023
2087 10,776,402,019
2088 10,788,248,948
2089 10,799,413,366
2090 10,809,892,303
2091 10,819,682,643
2092 10,828,780,959
2093 10,837,182,077
2094 10,844,878,798
2095 10,851,860,145
2096 10,858,111,587
2097 10,863,614,776
2098 10,868,347,636
2099 10,872,284,134
2100 10,875,393,719

History of population projections[edit]

Walter Greiling projected in the 1950s that world population would reach a peak of about nine billion, in the 21st century, and then stop growing after a readjustment of the Third World and a sanitation of the tropics.[14]

Estimates published in the 2000s tended to predict that the population of Earth would stop increasing around 2070.[15] In a 2004 long-term prospective report, the United Nations Population Division projected the world population would peak at 7.85 billion in 2075. After reaching this maximum, it would decline slightly and then resume a slow increase, reaching a level of 5.11 billion by 2300, about the same as the projected 2050 figure.[16]

This prediction was revised in the 2010s, to the effect that no maximum will likely be reached in the 21st century.[17] The main reason for the revision was that the ongoing rapid population growth in Africa had been underestimated. A 2014 paper by demographers from several universities and the United Nations Population Division forecast that the world's population would reach about 10.9 billion in 2100 and continue growing thereafter.[18] In 2017 the UN predicted a decline of global population growth rate from +1.0% in 2020 to +0.5% in 2050 and to +0.1% in 2100.[19]

Jørgen Randers, one of the authors of the seminal 1972 long-term simulations in The Limits to Growth, offered an alternative scenario in a 2012 book, arguing that traditional projections insufficiently take into account the downward impact of global urbanization on fertility. Randers' "most likely scenario" predicts a peak in the world population in the early 2040s at about 8.1 billion people, followed by decline.[20]

Drivers of population change[edit]

The population of a country or area grows or declines through the interaction of three demographic drivers: fertility, mortality, and migration.[2]

Fertility[edit]

Map of countries by fertility rate (2020), according to the Population Reference Bureau

Fertility is expressed as the total fertility rate (TFR), a measure of the number of children on average that a woman will bear in her lifetime. With longevity trending towards uniform and stable values worldwide, the main driver of future population growth will be the evolution of the fertility rate.[7]

Where fertility is high, demographers generally assume that fertility will decline and eventually stabilize at about two children per woman.[2]

During the period 2015–2020, the average world fertility rate was 2.5 children per woman,[7] about half the level in 1950-1955 (5 children per woman). In the medium variant, global fertility is projected to decline further to 2.2 in 2045-2050 and to 1.9 in 2095–2100.[7]

Mortality[edit]

If the mortality rate is relatively high and the resulting life expectancy is therefore relatively low, changes in mortality can have a material impact on population growth. Where the mortality rate is low and life expectancy has therefore risen, a change in mortality will have much less an effect.[2]

Because child mortality has declined substantially over the last several decades,[2] global life expectancy at birth, which is estimated to have risen from 47 years in 1950–1955 to 67 years in 2000–2005,[21] is expected to keep rising to reach 77 years in 2045–2050.[22] In the More Developed regions, the projected increase is from 79 years today[21] to 83 years by mid-century.[22] Among the Least Developed countries, where life expectancy today is just under 65 years,[21] it is expected to be 71 years in 2045–2050.[22]

The population of 31 countries or areas, including Ukraine, Romania, Japan and most of the successor states of the Soviet Union, is expected to be lower in 2050 than in 2005.

Migration[edit]

Migration can have a significant effect on population change. Global South-South migration accounts for 38% of total migration, and Global South-North for 34%.[23] For example, the United Nations reports that during the period 2010–2020, fourteen countries will have seen a net inflow of more than one million migrants, while ten countries will have seen a net outflow of similar proportions. The largest migratory outflows have been in response to demand for workers in other countries (Bangladesh, Nepal and the Philippines) or to insecurity in the home country (Myanmar, Syria and Venezuela). Belarus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, Serbia and Ukraine have experienced a net inflow of migrants over the decade, helping to offset population losses caused by a negative natural increase (births minus deaths).[24]

World population[edit]

Estimates of population levels in different continents between 1950 and 2050, according to the United Nations (2011 edition). The vertical axis is logarithmic and is in millions of people.
UN estimates (as of 2017) for world population by continent in 2000 and in 2050 (pie chart size to scale).[19]
     Asia      Africa      Europe      Latin America      Northern America      Oceania
World population estimates from 1800 to 2100, based on "high", "medium" and "low" United Nations projections in 2010 (colored red, orange and green) and US Census Bureau historical estimates (in black). Actual recorded population figures (as of 2010) are colored in blue. According to the highest estimate, the world population may rise to 16 billions by 2100; according to the lowest estimate, it may decline to 7.2 billions.

2050[edit]

The median scenario of the UN 2019 World Population Prospects[25] predicts the following populations per region in 2050 (compared to population in 2000), in billions:

2000 2050 growth %/yr
Asia 3.74 5.29 +41% +0.7%
Africa 0.81 2.49 +207% +2.3%
Europe 0.73 0.71 −3% −0.1%
South/Central America
+Caribbean
0.52 0.76 +46% +0.8%
North America 0.31 0.43 +39% +0.7%
Oceania 0.03 0.06 +100% +1.4%
World 6.14 9.74 +60% +0.9%

After 2050[edit]

Projections of population reaching more than one generation into the future are highly speculative: Thus, the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs report of 2004 projected the world population to peak at 9.22 billion in 2075 and then stabilise at a value close to 9 billion;[26] By contrast, a 2014 projection by the United Nations Population Division predicted a population close to 11 billion by 2100 without any declining trend in the foreseeable future.[18]

United Nations projections[edit]

The UN Population Division report of 2019 projects world population to continue growing, although at a steadily decreasing rate, and to reach 10.9 billion in 2100 with a growth rate at that time of close to zero.[25]

This projected growth of population, like all others, depends on assumptions about vital rates. For example, the UN Population Division assumes that Total fertility rate (TFR) will continue to decline, at varying paces depending on circumstances in individual regions, to a below-replacement level of 1.9 by 2100. Between now (2020) and 2100, regions with TFR currently below this rate, e.g. Europe, will see TFR rise.  Regions with TFR above this rate, will see TFR continue to decline.[7]  

Total Fertility Rate for six regions and the world, 1950-2100

Other projections[edit]

  • A 2020 study published by The Lancet from researchers funded by the Global Burden of Disease Study promotes a lower growth scenario, projecting that world population will peak in 2064 at 9.7 billion and then decline to 8.8 billion in 2100. This projection assumes further advancement of women's rights globally. In this case TFR is assumed to decline more rapidly than the UN's projection, to reach 1.7 in 2100.[27]
  • An analysis from the Wittgenstein Center IIASA predicts global population to peak in 2070 at 9.4 billion and then decline to 9.0 billion in 2100.[28]
  • The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) and the Insurance Institute of South Africa (IIASA) project lower fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in 2100 than the UN. By 2100, the UN projects the population in SSA will reach 3.8 billion, IHME projects 3.1 billion, and IIASA projects 2.6 billion. IHME and IIASA incorporate women’s educational attainment in their models of fertility, and in the case of IHME, also consider met need for family planning.[11]

Other assumptions can produce other results.  Some of the authors of the 2004 UN report assumed that life expectancy would rise slowly and continuously. The projections in the report assume this with no upper limit, though at a slowing pace depending on circumstances in individual countries. By 2100, the report assumed life expectancy to be from 66 to 97 years, and by 2300 from 87 to 106 years, depending on the country. Based on that assumption, they expect that rising life expectancy will produce small but continuing population growth by the end of the projections, ranging from 0.03 to 0.07 percent annually. The hypothetical feasibility (and wide availability) of life extension by technological means would further contribute to long term (beyond 2100) population growth.[29][30][31]

Evolutionary biology also suggests the demographic transition may reverse itself and global population may continue to grow in the long term.[32] In addition, recent evidence suggests birth rates may be rising in the 21st century in the developed world.[33]

Growth regions[edit]

The table below shows that from 2020 to 2050, the bulk of the world's population growth is predicted to take place in Africa: of the additional 1.9 billion people projected between 2020 and 2050, 1.2 billion will be added in Africa, 0.7 billion in Asia and zero in the rest of the world. Africa's share of global population is projected to grow from 17% in 2020 to 26% in 2050 and 39% by 2100, while the share of Asia will fall from 59% in 2020 to 55% in 2050 and 43% in 2100.[25][9] The strong growth of the African population will happen regardless of the rate of decrease of fertility, because of the exceptional proportion of young people already living today. For example, the UN projects that the population of Nigeria will surpass that of the United States by about 2050.[6]

Sources of Population Growth
Region Pop

2020

% of

Total

Pop

2050

% of

Total

Chg

2020–50

Pop

2100

% of

Total

Africa 1.3 17 2.5 26 1.2 4.3 39
Asia 4.6 59 5.3 55 0.7 4.7 43
Other 1.9 24 1.9 20 0.0 1.9 17
World 7.8 100 9.7 100 1.9 10.9 100

The population of the More Developed regions is slated to remain mostly unchanged, at 1.3 billion for the remainder of the 21st century. All population growth comes from the Less Developed regions.[25][34]

Sources of Population Growth
Region Pop

2020

% of

Total

Pop

2050

% of

Total

Chg

2020–50

Pop

2100

% of

Total

More Developed 1.3 17 1.3 13 0.0 1.3 12
Less Developed 6.5 83 8.4 87 1.9 9.6 88
World 7.8 100 9.7 100 1.9 10.9 100

The table below breaks out the UN's future population growth predictions by region[9]

Annual Percent Change of Population For Three Periods In the Future
Region 2020–25

% chg/yr

2045–50

% chg/yr

2095–2100

% chg/yr

Africa 2.4 1.8 0.6
Asia 0.8 0.1 −0.4
Europe 0.0 −0.3 −0.1
Latin America & the Caribbean 0.8 0.2 −0.5
Northern America 0.6 0.3 0.2
Oceania 1.2 0.8 0.4
World 1.0 0.5 0.0

Between 2020 and the end of this century, the UN predicts that all six regions will experience declines in population growth, that by the end of the century three of them will be experiencing population decline, and the world will have reached zero population growth.

Most populous nations by 2050 and 2100[edit]

The UN Population Division has calculated the future population of the world's countries, based on current demographic trends. Current (2020) world population is 7.8 billion. The 2019 report projects world population in 2050 to be 9.7 billion people, and possibly as high as 11 billion by the next century, with the following estimates for the top 14 countries in 2020, 2050, and 2100:[25]

Population Growth of the Top 14 Countries in 2020, 2050, and 2100
Country Pop 2020 (mil) Pop 2050 (mil) Pop 2100 (mil) 2020 Rank 2050 Rank 2100 Rank
China 1,439 1,402 1,065 1 2 2
India 1,380 1,639 1,447 2 1 1
United States 331 379 434 3 4 4
Indonesia 273 331 321 4 6 7
Pakistan 221 338 403 5 5 5
Brazil 212 229 181 6 7 12
Nigeria 206 401 733 7 3 3
Bangladesh 165 192 151 8 10 14
Russia 146 136 126 9 14 19
Mexico 129 155 141 10 12 17
Japan 126 106 75 11 17 36
Ethiopia 115 205 294 12 8 8
Philippines 110 144 146 13 13 15
Egypt 102 160 225 14 11 10
Democratic Republic of the Congo 90 194 362 16 9 6
Tanzania 60 135 286 24 15 9
Niger 24 66 165 56 30 13
Angola 33 77 188 44 24 11
World 7,795 9,735 10,875

From 2017 to 2050, the nine highlighted countries are expected to account for half of the world's projected population increase: India, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, Ethiopia, Tanzania, the United States, Uganda, and Indonesia, listed according to the expected size of their contribution to that projected population growth.[24]

Population projections of the largest metropolitan areas[edit]

Large urban areas are hubs of economic development and innovation, with larger cities underpinning regional economies and local and global sustainability initiatives. Currently, 757 million humans live in the 101 largest cities;[35] these cities are home to 11% of the world's population.[35] By the end of the century, the world population is projected to grow, with estimates ranging from 6.9 billion to 13.1 billion;[35] the percentage of people living in the 101 largest cities is estimated to be 15% to 23%.[35]

The following 101 metropolitan areas with the largest population projections for the years 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100 are listed below.[35]

Rank City Projected
Population (millions)
2025
City Projected
Population (millions)
2050
City Projected
Population (millions)
2075
City Projected
Population (millions)
2100
1 Japan Tokyo 36.40 India Mumbai 42.40 Democratic Republic of the Congo Kinshasa 58.42 Nigeria Lagos 88.30
2 India Mumbai 26.39 India Delhi 36.16 India Mumbai 57.86 Democratic Republic of the Congo Kinshasa 83.53
3 India Delhi 22.50 Bangladesh Dhaka 35.19 Nigeria Lagos 57.20 Tanzania Dar es Salaam 73.68
4 Bangladesh Dhaka 22.02 Democratic Republic of the Congo Kinshasa 35.00 India Delhi 49.34 India Mumbai 67.24
5 Brazil São Paulo 21.43 India Kolkata 33.04 Bangladesh Dhaka 46.22 India Delhi 57.33
6 Mexico Mexico City 21.01 Nigeria Lagos 32.63 India Kolkata 45.09 Sudan Khartoum 56.59
7 United States New York City 20.63 Japan Tokyo 32.62 Pakistan Karachi 43.37 Niger Niamey 56.15
8 India Kolkata 20.56 Pakistan Karachi 31.70 Tanzania Dar es Salaam 37.49 Bangladesh Dhaka 54.25
9 China Shanghai 19.41 United States New York City 24.77 Egypt Cairo 33.00 India Kolkata 52.40
10 Pakistan Karachi 19.10 Mexico Mexico City 24.33 Philippines Manila 32.75 Afghanistan Kabul 50.30
11 Democratic Republic of the Congo Kinshasa 16.76 Egypt Cairo 24.03 Afghanistan Kabul 32.67 Pakistan Karachi 49.06
12 Nigeria Lagos 15.80 Philippines Manila 23.55 Sudan Khartoum 30.68 Kenya Nairobi 46.66
13 Egypt Cairo 15.56 Brazil São Paulo 22.82 Japan Tokyo 28.92 Malawi Lilongwe 41.38
14 Philippines Manila 14.81 China Shanghai 21.32 Kenya Nairobi 28.42 Malawi Blantyre 40.91
15 China Beijing 14.55 Pakistan Lahore 17.45 United States New York City 27.92 Egypt Cairo 40.54
16 Argentina Buenos Aires 13.77 Afghanistan Kabul 17.09 Iraq Baghdad 24.39 Uganda Kampala 40.14
17 United States Los Angeles 13.67 United States Los Angeles 16.42 Mexico Mexico City 24.18 Philippines Manila 39.96
18 Brazil Rio de Janeiro 13.41 India Chennai 16.28 Pakistan Lahore 23.88 Zambia Lusaka 37.74
19 Indonesia Jakarta 12.36 Sudan Khartoum 16.00 Ethiopia Addis Ababa 23.81 Somalia Mogadishu 36.37
20 Turkey Istanbul 12.10 Tanzania Dar es Salaam 15.97 India Chennai 22.21 Ethiopia Addis Ababa 35.82
21 China Guangzhou 11.84 China Beijing 15.97 India Bangalore 21.31 Iraq Baghdad 34.10
22 Japan Osaka-Kobe 11.37 Indonesia Jakarta 15.92 Brazil São Paulo 21.28 United States New York City 30.19
23 Russia Moscow 10.53 India Bangalore 15.62 China Shanghai 21.05 Chad N'Djamena 28.81
24 Pakistan Lahore 11.37 Argentina Buenos Aires 15.55 Niger Niamey 20.37 Nigeria Kano 28.28
25 China Shenzhen 10.20 Iraq Baghdad 15.09 Uganda Kampala 20.23 Yemen Sana'a 27.21
26 India Chennai 10.13 India Hyderabad 14.61 India Hyderabad 19.94 Pakistan Lahore 27.05
27 France Paris 10.04 Angola Luanda 14.30 Angola Luanda 19.65 India Chennai 25.81
28 United States Chicago 9.93 Brazil Rio de Janeiro 14.29 United States Los Angeles 18.51 Japan Tokyo 25.63
29 Iran Tehran 9.81 Kenya Nairobi 14.25 Nigeria Kano 17.69 India Bangalore 24.77
30 South Korea Seoul 9.74 Turkey Istanbul 14.18 Indonesia Jakarta 17.55 Nigeria Ibadan 23.68
31 India Bangalore 9.72 Ethiopia Addis Ababa 13.21 India Ahmedabad 16.93 Angola Luanda 23.55
32 Peru Lima 9.60 China Guangzhou 13.00 Yemen Sana'a 16.69 India Hyderabad 23.17
33 Colombia Bogotá 9.60 India Ahmedabad 12.43 Brazil Rio de Janeiro 16.56 Mali Bamako 22.95
34 China Wuhan 9.34 Bangladesh Chittagong 12.21 Argentina Buenos Aires 16.40 Mexico Mexico City 22.22
35 China Tianjin 9.24 United States Chicago 11.93 Bangladesh Chittagong 16.04 Senegal Dakar 21.18
36 India Hyderabad 9.09 Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City 11.86 Somalia Mogadishu 15.94 Mozambique Maputo 21.07
37 United Kingdom London 8.62 Peru Lima 11.57 China Beijing 15.78 China Shanghai 20.79
38 Thailand Bangkok 8.33 Colombia Bogotá 11.56 Ivory Coast Abidjan 15.52 Burkina Faso Ouagadougou 20.63
39 Hong Kong Hong Kong 8.31 China Shenzhen 11.20 Malawi Lilongwe 15.32 Madagascar Antananarivo 20.53
40 China Chongqing 8.28 France Paris 11.12 Malawi Blantyre 15.06 United States Los Angeles 20.01
41 Angola Luanda 8.24 Thailand Bangkok 11.08 India Pune 14.91 Brazil Rio de Janeiro 19.84
42 Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City 8.15 Iran Tehran 11.00 Nigeria Ibadan 14.81 India Ahmedabad 19.71
43 Iraq Baghdad 8.06 India Pune 10.92 Turkey Istanbul 14.68 Ivory Coast Abidjan 19.70
44 Sudan Khartoum 7.94 Ivory Coast Abidjan 10.71 Senegal Dakar 14.56 Brazil São Paulo 19.12
45 India Ahmedabad 7.74 Nigeria Kano 10.44 Zambia Lusaka 14.52 Bangladesh Chittagong 18.82
46 Bangladesh Chittagong 7.64 China Wuhan 10.26 Chad N'djamena 14.48 Nigeria Abuja 18.58
47 Afghanistan Kabul 7.18 Russia Moscow 10.24 Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City 14.22 Rwanda Kigali 18.30
48 Brazil Santiago* 7.03 Japan Osaka-Kobe 10.19 Mali Bamako 13.54 Indonesia Jakarta 18.22
49 India Pune 6.80 China Tianjin 10.15 United States Chicago 13.44 India Pune 17.32
50 Vietnam Hanoi 6.75 Yemen Sana'a 10.05 China Guangzhou 12.84 Guinea Conakry 17.32
51 Brazil Belo Horizonte 6.75 Vietnam Hanoi 9.83 Thailand Bangkok 12.55 Argentina Buenos Aires 16.99
52 Chile Santiago 6.31 United Kingdom London 9.75 India Surat 12.51 China Beijing 15.58
53 Saudi Arabia Riyadh 6.28 South Korea Seoul 9.47 Peru Lima 12.44 Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City 15.53
54 United States Miami 6.27 Hong Kong Hong Kong 9.47 Madagascar Antananarivo 12.40 Turkey Istanbul 14.79
55 China Dongguan 6.16 Uganda Kampala 9.43 Egypt Alexandria 11.99 Egypt Alexandria 14.72
56 China Shenyang 6.16 India Surat 9.17 Colombia Bogota 11.89 Democratic Republic of the Congo Lubumbashi 14.66
57 Ethiopia Addis Ababa 6.16 China Chongqing 9.09 Vietnam Hanoi 11.79 United States Chicago 14.54
58 United States Philadelphia 6.13 Nigeria Ibadan 8.75 Nigeria Abuja 11.75 India Surat 14.53
59 Ivory Coast Abidjan 6.03 Egypt Alexandria 8.73 Burkina Faso Ouagadougou 11.70 Democratic Republic of the Congo Mbuji-Mayi 14.20
60 Canada Toronto 5.95 Senegal Dakar 8.52 France Paris 11.64 Kenya Mombasa 14.01
61 Spain Madrid 5.94 Myanmar Yangon 8.44 China Shenzhen 11.06 Cambodia Phnom Penh 13.88
62 Kenya Nairobi 5.87 Saudi Arabia Riyadh 8.09 Mozambique Maputo 10.92 Nigeria Kaduna 13.20
63 Myanmar Yangon 5.87 Mali Bamako 7.63 Guinea Conakry 10.63 Vietnam Hanoi 12.87
64 India Surat 5.70 United States Miami 7.53 Hong Kong Hong Kong 10.41 Peru Lima 12.81
65 Tanzania Dar es Salaam 5.69 Brazil Santiago 7.49 Iran Tehran 10.36 China Guangzhou 12.68
66 Egypt Alexandria 5.65 India Kanpur 7.39 Myanmar Yangon 10.26 Thailand Bangkok 12.14
67 United States DallasFort Worth 5.42 United States Philadelphia 7.36 China Wuhan 10.13 France Paris 11.86
68 Mexico Tlaquepaque 5.37 Madagascar Antananarivo 7.26 India Kanpur 10.09 India Kanpur 11.73
69 Mexico Tonalá 5.37 Brazil Belo Horizonte 7.19 United Kingdom London 10.09 Yemen Al Hudaydah 11.51
70 Mexico Zapopan 5.37 Pakistan Faisalabad 7.11 China Tianjin 10.03  Hong Kong 11.46
71 China Chengdu 5.32 Canada Toronto 7.04 Rwanda Kigali 9.79 Morocco Casablanca 11.42
72 China Xi'an 5.23 Nigeria Abuja 6.94 Pakistan Faisalabad 9.73 Liberia Monrovia 11.21
73 Spain Barcelona 5.18 India Jaipur 6.91 Democratic Republic of the Congo Lubumbashi 9.57 Colombia Bogotá 11.20
74 United States Atlanta 5.15 Burkina Faso Ouagadougou 6.90 Russia Moscow 9.51 Nigeria Benin City 11.14
75 China Guiyang 5.11 Niger Niamey 6.79 India Jaipur 9.43 Egypt Giza 11.00
76 Singapore Singapore 5.10 Chile Santiago 6.77 Democratic Republic of the Congo Mbuji-Mayi 9.27 Pakistan Faisalabad 11.00
77 Nigeria Kano 5.06 China Dongguan 6.76 Japan Osaka-Kobe 9.03 Ghana Accra 10.99
78 United States Houston 5.05 China Shenyang 6.76 Saudi Arabia Riyadh 9.00 India Jaipur 10.95
79 United States Boston 5.03 Somalia Mogadishu 6.57 China Chongqing 8.98 China Shenzhen 10.92
80 Mexico Guadalajara 4.97 Egypt Giza 6.52 Egypt Giza 8.96 Yemen Taiz 10.82
81 Mexico Guadalupe 4.95 Spain Madrid 6.52 Cambodia Phnom Penh 8.85 Togo Lomé 10.21
82 United States Washington, D.C. 4.89 United States Dallas-Fort Worth 6.51 India Lucknow 8.65 India Lucknow 10.05
83 Australia Sydney 4.83 India Lucknow 6.34 Kenya Mombasa 8.53 China Wuhan 10.00
84 China Nanjing 4.77 Mexico Tlaquepaque 6.22 United States Miami 8.49 China Tianjin 9.90
85 China Harbin 4.70 Mexico Tonalá 6.22 United States Philadelphia 8.30 Cameroon Douala 9.68
86 Brazil Porto Alegre 4.63 Mexico Zapopan 6.22 Nigeria Kaduna 8.26 United Kingdom London 9.56
87 United States Detroit 4.61 United States Atlanta 6.19 Ghana Accra 7.98 Saudi Arabia Riyadh 9.40
88 India Kanpur 4.60 Democratic Republic of the Congo Lubumbashi 6.15 India Nagpur 7.86 Nigeria Port Harcourt 9.40
89 Turkey Ankara 4.59 Guinea Conakry 6.14 Canada Toronto 7.81 United States Miami 9.18
90 Brazil Brasilia 4.58 United States Houston 6.06 South Korea Seoul 7.67 India Nagpur 9.13
91 Algeria Algiers 4.50 United States Boston 6.04 Syria Aleppo 7.37 United States Philadelphia 8.98
92 Russia St. Petersburg 4.48 Democratic Republic of the Congo Mbuji-Mayi 5.95 United States DallasFort Worth 7.34 Iraq Mosul 8.87
93 Mexico Monterrey 4.41 Ghana Accra 5.94 Togo Lomé 7.25 China Chongqing 8.87
94 Yemen Sana'a 4.38 Syria Aleppo 5.90 Liberia Monrovia 7.08 Russia Moscow 8.42
95 Brazil Recife 4.35 United States Washington, D.C. 5.87 Cameroon Douala 7.07 Syria Aleppo 8.37
96 China Changchun 4.34 China Chengdu 5.84 Yemen Al-Hudaydah 7.06 Canada Toronto 8.33
97 India Jaipur 4.30 Australia Sydney 5.82 India Patna 7.03 India Patna 8.17
98 Pakistan Faisalabad 4.28 Mexico Guadalajara 5.76 Chile Santiago 6.98 Iran Tehran 8.17
99 Australia Melbourne 4.24 India Nagpur 5.76 United States Atlanta 6.97 Japan Osaka-Kobe 8.00
100 Nigeria Ibadan 4.23 China Xi'an 5.75 Pakistan Rawalpindi 6.97 United States Dallas-Fort Worth 7.93
101 Senegal Dakar 4.23 Mexico Guadalupe 5.73 Nigeria Benin City 6.96 Pakistan Rawalpindi 7.88

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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