List of countries ranked by ethnic and cultural diversity level

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List of countries ranked by ethnic and cultural diversity level. List based on Fearon's analysis

This article contains lists of countries ranked by ethnic and cultural diversity level.

Methodology[edit]

The lists are commonly used in economics literature to compare the levels of ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious fractionalization in different countries.[1][2]

Fractionalization is the probability that two individuals drawn randomly from the country's groups are not from the same group (ethnic, religious, or whatever the criterion is). Note that in Fearon's analysis, only groups containing over one percent of the country's population were considered. This limit made Papua New Guinea (PNG) an interesting oddity; as none of its thousands of groups included more than one percent of the population, it was considered to have zero groups and thus have a perfect fractionalization score of 1.

The two lists have been described by Alesina and Ferrara as follows:[1]

"Fearon[3] and Alesina et al.[4] have compiled various measures of ethnic heterogeneity which try to tackle the fact that the difference amongst groups manifests itself in different ways in different places. The two classifications are constructed differently. Alesina et al.[4] do not take a stand on what ethnicity (or language or religion) are more salient than others and adopt the country breakdown suggested by original sources, mainly the Encyclopædia Britannica. Fearon[3] instead is trying to construct the 'right list' of ethnic groups which 'depends on what people in the country identify as the most socially relevant ethnic groupings'. This approach has the advantage of being closer to what the theory would want and the disadvantage of having to make judgement calls (or adopt others' judgement calls) about what is the 'right list'."

List based on Fearon's analysis[edit]

In the Fearon list, ethnic fractionalization is approximated by a measure of similarity between languages, varying from 1 = the population speaks two or more unrelated languages to 0 = the entire population speaks the same language.[3] This index of cultural diversity is biased towards linguistic variations as opposed to genetic diversity and other variations.

Ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization[4]
Country Ethnic
Fractionalization
Linguistic
Fractionalization
Religious
Fractionalization
 Afghanistan 0.769300 0.614100 0.271700
 Albania 0.220400 0.039900 0.471900
 Algeria 0.339400 0.442700 0.009100
 American Samoa 0.000000 0.173300 0.639500
 Andorra 0.713900 0.684800 0.232600
 Angola 0.786700 0.787000 0.627600
 Antigua and Barbuda 0.164300 0.106300 0.684000
 Argentina 0.255000 0.061800 0.223600
 Armenia 0.127200 0.129100 0.457600
 Aruba 0.000000 0.388900 0.410700
 Australia 0.092900 0.334900 0.821100
 Austria 0.106800 0.152200 0.414600
 Azerbaijan 0.204700 0.205400 0.489900
 Bahamas 0.422800 0.185500 0.681500
 Bahrain 0.502100 0.434400 0.552800
 Bangladesh 0.045400 0.092500 0.209000
 Barbados 0.142300 0.092600 0.693400
 Belarus 0.322200 0.466600 0.611600
 Belgium 0.555400 0.540900 0.212700
 Belize 0.701500 0.630300 0.581300
 Benin 0.787200 0.790500 0.554400
 Bermuda 0.000000 0.000000 0.711200
 Bhutan 0.605000 0.605600 0.378700
 Bolivia 0.739600 0.224000 0.208500
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.630000 0.675100 0.685100
 Botswana 0.410200 0.411000 0.598600
 Brazil 0.540800 0.046800 0.605400
 Brunei 0.541600 0.343800 0.440400
 Bulgaria 0.402100 0.303100 0.596500
 Burkina Faso 0.737700 0.722800 0.579800
 Burundi 0.295100 0.297700 0.515800
 Cambodia 0.210500 0.210400 0.096500
 Cameroon 0.863500 0.889800 0.733800
 Canada 0.712400 0.577200 0.695800
 Cape Verde 0.417400 0.000000 0.076600
 Central African Republic 0.829500 0.833400 0.791600
 Chad 0.862000 0.863500 0.641100
 Chile 0.186100 0.187100 0.384100
 China 0.153800 0.132700 0.664300
 Colombia 0.601400 0.019300 0.147800
 Comoros 0.000000 0.010300 0.013700
 DR Congo 0.874700 0.870500 0.702100
 Congo 0.874700 0.687100 0.664200
 Costa Rica 0.236800 0.048900 0.241000
 Ivory Coast 0.820400 0.784200 0.755100
 Croatia 0.369000 0.076300 0.444700
 Cuba 0.590800 0.000000 0.505900
 Cyprus 0.093900 0.396200 0.396200
 Czech Republic 0.322200 0.323300 0.659100
 Denmark 0.081900 0.104900 0.233300
 Djibouti 0.796200 0.655800 0.043500
 Dominica 0.200300 0.000000 0.462800
 Dominican Republic 0.429400 0.039500 0.311800
 East Timor 0.000000 0.526100 0.425400
 Ecuador 0.655000 0.130800 0.141700
 Egypt 0.183600 0.023700 0.197900
 El Salvador 0.197800 0.000000 0.355900
 Equatorial Guinea 0.346700 0.322000 0.119500
 Eritrea 0.652400 0.653000 0.425300
 Estonia 0.506200 0.494400 0.498500
 Ethiopia 0.723500 0.807300 0.624900
 Faroe Islands 0.000000 0.000000 0.314700
 Fiji 0.547900 0.547900 0.568200
 Finland 0.131500 0.141200 0.253100
 France 0.103200 0.122100 0.402900
 French Guiana 0.000000 0.115400 0.495900
 French Polynesia 0.000000 0.607800 0.581300
 Gabon 0.769000 0.782100 0.667400
 Gambia 0.786400 0.807600 0.097000
 Gaza Strip 0.000000 0.010400 0.034200
 Georgia 0.492300 0.474900 0.654300
 Germany 0.168200 0.164200 0.657100
 Ghana 0.673300 0.673100 0.798700
 Greece 0.157600 0.030000 0.153000
 Greenland 0.000000 0.218800 0.459200
 Grenada 0.266100 0.000000 0.589800
 Guadeloupe 0.000000 0.093300 0.306900
 Guam 0.000000 0.732000 0.408200
 Guatemala 0.512200 0.458600 0.375300
 Guinea 0.738900 0.772500 0.264900
 Guinea-Bissau 0.808200 0.814100 0.612800
 Guyana 0.619500 0.068800 0.787600
 Haiti 0.095000 0.000000 0.470400
 Honduras 0.186700 0.055300 0.235700
 Hong Kong 0.062000 0.212800 0.419100
 Hungary 0.152200 0.029700 0.524400
 Iceland 0.079800 0.082000 0.191300
 India 0.418200 0.806900 0.326000
 Indonesia 0.735100 0.768000 0.234000
 Iran 0.668400 0.746200 0.115200
 Iraq 0.368900 0.369400 0.484400
 Ireland 0.120600 0.031200 0.155000
 Isle of Man 0.000000 0.000000 0.472900
 Israel 0.343600 0.552500 0.346900
 Italy 0.114500 0.114700 0.302700
 Jamaica 0.412900 0.109800 0.616000
 Japan 0.011900 0.017800 0.540600
 Jersey 0.000000 0.000000 0.547900
 Jordan 0.592600 0.039600 0.065900
 Kazakhstan 0.617100 0.662100 0.589800
 Kenya 0.858800 0.886000 0.776500
 Kiribati 0.051100 0.023700 0.554100
 South Korea 0.039200 0.002800 0.489100
 North Korea 0.002000 0.002100 0.660400
 Kyrgyzstan 0.675200 0.594900 0.447000
 Kuwait 0.660400 0.344400 0.674500
 Laos 0.513900 0.638200 0.545300
 Latvia 0.586700 0.579500 0.555600
 Lebanon 0.131400 0.131200 0.788600
 Lesotho 0.255000 0.254300 0.721100
 Liberia 0.908400 0.903800 0.488300
 Libya 0.792000 0.075800 0.057000
 Liechtenstein 0.572600 0.224600 0.334300
 Lithuania 0.322300 0.321900 0.414100
 Luxembourg 0.530200 0.644000 0.091100
 Macau 0.000000 0.251900 0.551100
 North Macedonia 0.502300 0.502100 0.589900
 Madagascar 0.879100 0.020400 0.519100
 Malawi 0.674400 0.602300 0.819200
 Malaysia 0.588000 0.597000 0.665700
 Mali 0.690600 0.838800 0.182000
 Malta 0.041400 0.090700 0.122300
 Marshall Islands 0.060300 0.073400 0.520700
 Martinique 0.000000 0.000000 0.233600
 Mauritania 0.615000 0.326000 0.014900
 Mauritius 0.463400 0.454700 0.638500
 Mayotte 0.000000 0.721200 0.062000
 Mexico 0.541800 0.151100 0.179600
 Micronesia 0.700500 0.748300 0.646900
 Moldova 0.553500 0.553300 0.560300
 Monaco 0.683800 0.730500 0.304700
 Mongolia 0.368200 0.373400 0.079900
 Morocco 0.484100 0.468300 0.003500
 Mozambique 0.693200 0.812500 0.675900
 Burma 0.506200 0.507200 0.197400
 Namibia 0.632900 0.700500 0.662600
 Nauru 0.583200 0.616100 0.619400
 Nepal 0.663200 0.716700 0.141700
 Netherlands Antilles 0.000000 0.250800 0.386600
 Netherlands 0.105400 0.514300 0.722200
 New Caledonia 0.000000 0.663300 0.546200
 New Zealand 0.396900 0.165700 0.811000
 Nicaragua 0.484400 0.047300 0.429000
 Niger 0.651800 0.651900 0.201300
 Nigeria 0.850500 0.831600 0.742100
 Northern Mariana Islands 0.000000 0.775400 0.481100
 Norway 0.058600 0.067300 0.204800
 Oman 0.437300 0.356700 0.432200
 Pakistan 0.709800 0.719000 0.384800
 Palau 0.431200 0.315700 0.714700
 Panama 0.552800 0.387300 0.333800
 Papua New Guinea 0.271800 0.352600 0.552300
 Paraguay 0.168900 0.597500 0.212300
 Peru 0.656600 0.335800 0.198800
 Philippines 0.238500 0.836000 0.305600
 Poland 0.118300 0.046800 0.171200
 Portugal 0.046800 0.019800 0.143800
 Puerto Rico 0.000000 0.035200 0.495200
 Qatar 0.745600 0.480000 0.095000
 Réunion 0.000000 0.157800 0.195200
 Romania 0.306900 0.172300 0.237300
 Russia 0.245200 0.248500 0.439800
 Rwanda 0.323800 0.000000 0.506600
 Saint Lucia 0.176900 0.316900 0.332000
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0.306600 0.017500 0.702800
 Western Samoa 0.137600 0.011100 0.787100
 San Marino 0.292700 0.000000 0.197500
 São Tomé and Príncipe 0.000000 0.232200 0.186600
 Saudi Arabia 0.180000 0.094900 0.127000
 Senegal 0.693900 0.708100 0.149700
 Serbia 0.573600 0.000000 0.000000
 Seychelles 0.202500 0.160600 0.232300
 Sierra Leone 0.819100 0.763400 0.539500
 Singapore 0.385700 0.383500 0.656100
 Slovakia 0.253900 0.255100 0.565500
 Slovenia 0.221600 0.220100 0.286800
 Solomon Islands 0.111000 0.525400 0.670800
 Somalia 0.811700 0.032600 0.002800
 South Africa 0.751700 0.865200 0.860300
 Spain 0.416500 0.413200 0.451400
 Sri Lanka 0.415000 0.464500 0.485300
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 0.184200 0.000000 0.661400
 Sudan 0.714700 0.719000 0.430700
 Suriname 0.733200 0.331000 0.791000
 Swaziland 0.058200 0.172200 0.444400
 Sweden 0.060000 0.196800 0.234200
 Switzerland 0.531400 0.544100 0.608300
 Syria 0.539900 0.181700 0.431000
 Taiwan 0.274400 0.502800 0.684500
 Tajikistan 0.510700 0.547300 0.338600
 Tanzania 0.735300 0.898300 0.633400
 Thailand 0.633800 0.634400 0.099400
 Togo 0.709900 0.898000 0.659600
 Tonga 0.086900 0.378200 0.621400
 Trinidad and Tobago 0.647500 0.125100 0.793600
 Tunisia 0.039400 0.012400 0.010400
 Turkey 0.320000 0.221600 0.004900
 Turkmenistan 0.391800 0.398400 0.232700
 Tuvalu 0.162900 0.137200 0.252400
 Uganda 0.930200 0.922700 0.633200
 Ukraine 0.473700 0.474100 0.615700
 United Arab Emirates 0.625200 0.487400 0.331000
 United Kingdom 0.121100 0.053200 0.694400
 United States 0.490100 0.564700 0.824100
 Uruguay 0.250400 0.081700 0.354800
 Uzbekistan 0.412500 0.412000 0.213300
 Vanuatu 0.041300 0.579400 0.704400
 Venezuela 0.496600 0.068600 0.135000
 Vietnam 0.238300 0.237700 0.508000
 U.S. Virgin Islands 0.000000 0.314000 0.635900
 West Bank 0.000000 0.143800 0.309500
 Yemen 0.000000 0.008000 0.002300
 Yugoslavia 0.809200 0.606400 0.553000
 Zambia 0.780800 0.873400 0.735900
 Zimbabwe 0.387400 0.447200 0.736300

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b A. Alesina, E. Ferrara (2005). "Ethnic Diversity and Economic Performance" (PDF). Journal of Economic Literature: 762–800. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
  2. ^ Natalka Patsiurko, John L. Campbell and John A. Hall (2012). "Measuring cultural diversity: ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization in the OECD" (PDF). Ethnic and Racial Studies. 35 (2): 195–217. doi:10.1080/01419870.2011.579136. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 25, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
  3. ^ a b c James Fearon (2003). "Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country". Journal of Economic Growth. 8: 195–222. doi:10.1023/A:1024419522867.
  4. ^ a b c Alberto Alesina; et al. (2003). "Fractionalization" (PDF). Journal of Economic Growth. 8: 155–194. doi:10.1023/a:1024471506938. Retrieved September 13, 2012.