List of countries by population in 1600

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List of Countries by Population
1500 1600 1700

This is a list of countries by population in 1600. Estimate numbers are from the beginning of the year, and exact population figures are for countries that held a census on various dates in that year. The bulk of these numbers are sourced from Alexander V. Avakov's Two Thousand Years of Economic Statistics, Volume 1, pages 15 to 17, which cover population figures from the year 1600 divided into modern borders. Avakov, in turn, cites a variety of sources, mostly Angus Maddison.

Country/Territory Population c. 1600 estimate Percentage of World Population
  World 579,000,000 -
Ming China[1] 150,000,000 27.6%
Imperial Seal of the Mughal Empire.svg Moghul Hindustan[2][3][a] ~56,000,000 19.9%
 Holy Roman Empire[3][b]
subdivisions
27,000,000+ - 34,000,000+ 5.2%
Iberian Union and possessions 28,745,000 5.0%
Ottoman Empire[3]
subdivisions
26,000,000 4.5%
 Kingdom of France[3] 18,500,000 3.2%
Kingdom of Morocco and possessions[3][37][d]
subdivisons
13,060,860 2.3%
Japan[38] 12,000,000 2.1%
Safavid Iran[39] under 5,000,000 to 10,000,000 1.7%
          Joseon[3] 9,879,000 1.7%
 Tsardom of Russia[40] ~9,000,000 1.6%
 Habsburg Monarchy[41]
subdivisions
7,800,000 1.3%
 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth[42] 7,950,000 1.4%
England and possessions[43]
subdivisions
5,600,000 1.0%
Imperial Standard of Nguyen Dynasty1.svg Đại Việt[44] 5,500,000 0.9%
          Malla[3] 2,750,000 0.5%
          Taungoo Burma[3]
subdivisions
2,380,000 0.4%
          Northern Yuan ~2,300,000 0.4%
Siam (plus Lan Na)[3] 2,236,000 0.4%
 Ethiopian Empire[3] 2,104,000 0.4%
Flag of Most Serene Republic of Venice.svg Republic of Venice[45] 2,000,000 0.3%
 Dutch Republic[3] 1,500,000 0.3%
Cambodia[3] 1,419,000 0.2%
Naval Ensign of Sweden.svg Sweden[46]
subdivisions
1,361,000 0.2%
 Denmark–Norway[47][48][49]
subdivisions
1,000,000 0.2%
 Kingdom of Scotland[50] 800,000 0.14%
 Republic of Genoa[51] 650,000 0.11%
          Kingdom of Lan Xang[3] 319,000 0.055%
          Malay Sultanates of Johor, Kedah, Pattani, and Perak[52] <200,000 (together) 0.023%
          Arab Emirates[3] 35,000 0.006%

The source used here calculates the said nations population by modern day borders, so the estimates are likely inaccurate.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In 1600 the Mughals ruled roughly 50% of India, which had a population of 113 million at the time according to Avakov.
  2. ^ Combining Avakov's listed populations for Germany (16m), Austria (2.5m), Czechia (3.242m), Belgium (1.6m), Switzerland (1m), Slovenia (0.248m), and a third of Italy (4.3m) yields 28.9 million inhabitants; Avakov p. 15. This total does not include the Empire's various now-French territories such as Franche-Comté (6,300 square miles, ruled by the Spanish Habsburgs), the départements of Nord and Pas-de-Calais (4,800 square miles together, ruled by the Spanish Habsburgs as part of the Spanish Netherlands), Alsace (3,200 square miles), or the County of Nice (1,500 square miles, ruled by the Savoyards). While still claimed by the Emperor, this total also does not count the independent Dutch Republic. An estimate by the Austrian War Archives in the first decade of the 18th century (most scholars agree that the areas of the Empire covered had a similar population in both the early 17th and early 18th centuries)[4] gives a population of 28 million for the German lands, Bohemia, and the Spanish Netherlands, which would add up to 33.5 million for the whole Empire in the early 17th century, excluding said now-French territories (Italian and Swiss populations listed below for their individual states). However, Benecke considers the Austrian War Archives figure to be "overgenerous."[5] Yet another source gives a population of 20 million for "Germany, Austria, and Bohemia."[6] Adding to that figure the already-listed ones for the Spanish Netherlands, Switzerland, and Italy equals a population of about 27 million, plus the French territories.
  3. ^ A figure of 800,000 is given by Smith for "Savoy in Italy", with no clarification as to whether that refers to the whole Savoyard state or just its Italian territories of Piedmont and the Aosta Valley (thus excluding Savoy proper and the County of Nice). However another source[10] gives early 17th century Piedmont's population as 700,000, and Savoy proper's as 400,000, with no numbers given for Aosta or Nice; indicating that Smith's use of "Savoy in Italy" does indeed only refer to Piedmont and Aosta.
  4. ^ The Songhai kingdom ruled roughly 1,400,000 sq km of land, or 540,543.022 sq miles in the 15th and 16th centuries. Around the same time, West Africa's population density was 20 persons per sq mile, an average between the estimates of Manning and Niane.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rowe, William T. (2009). China's Last Empire: The Great Qing. p. 91.
  2. ^ Irfan Habib, Dharma Kumar, Tapan Raychaudhuri (1987). The Cambridge Economic History of India (PDF). 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 170.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Avakov, Alexander V. (April 2015). Two Thousand Years of Economic Statistics, Volume 1. ISBN 9781628941012. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
  4. ^ Wilson, p. 795.
  5. ^ G. Benecke, Society and Politics in Germany, 1500–1750, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974, p. 162.
  6. ^ J.P. Sommerville. "The Holy Roman Empire in the Seventeenth Century". Retrieved 21 May 2017.. Archived here.
  7. ^ Wilson, p. 788.
  8. ^ 1.6 million only counts Belgium; the Spanish Netherlands also included Luxembourg and bits of modern Germany and France.
  9. ^ Preserved Smith. The Social Background of the Reformation. 1920. Page 19.
  10. ^ Gregory Hanlon. "The Hero of Italy: Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma, his Soldiers, and his Subjects in the Thirty Years' War." Routledge: May 2014. Page 87.
  11. ^ Wilson, Peter H. (2009). "Europe's Tragedy: A History of the Thirty Years War." Allen Lane. Page 18.
  12. ^ Wilson, p. 23.
  13. ^ Smith, p. 19: 500,000 on the mainland and 150,000 in Corsica.
  14. ^ Smith, p. 19.
  15. ^ Wilson, p. 18
  16. ^ Wilson, p. 18.
  17. ^ Smith, p. 19: the population of "Parma, Piacenza, and Modena together" is given as 500,000.
  18. ^ Roughly modern Slovenia.
  19. ^ Wilson, p. 870: "The Rheinfels branch died out in 1583 and was shared between the other three. As senior line, Hessen-Kassel possessed 6,100 km^2 with 160,000 inhabitants, while Darmstadt had 1,300 km^2 and 50,000 inhabitants and Marburg the remaining quarter." Hesse-Kassel and Marburg were integrated in 1604.
  20. ^ Wilson, p. 169
  21. ^ Smith, p. 19.
  22. ^ Wilson, p. 17
  23. ^ Wilson, p. 17
  24. ^ Wilson, p. 17
  25. ^ Smith, p. 17.
  26. ^ Figures derived from Ángel Rosenblat (1902 - 1984).
  27. ^ Avakov, Alexander V. (April 2015). Two Thousand Years of Economic Statistics, Volume 1. ISBN 9781628941012. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
  28. ^ Smith, p. 19.
  29. ^ Smith, p. 19.
  30. ^ M.N. Pearson. "The New Cambridge History of India: The Portuguese in India." 1988. Pages 92-93: "In 1524 there were 450 Portuguese householders in Goa city, and in 1540 about 1800. The former figure refers to 'pure' Portuguese, while the latter includes descendants of Portuguese and local women, in other words mestizos. There were also 3,600 soldiers in the town in 1540. Later in the 1540s, at the time of St Francis Xavier, the city population included 10,000 Indian Christians, 3,000-4,000 Portuguese, and many non-Christians, while outside the city the rest of Ilhas contained 50,000 inhabitants, 80 percent of them Hindu. Recent estimates put the city population at 60,000 in the 1580s, and about 75,000 at 1600, the latter figure including 1,500 Portuguese and mestizos, 20,000 Hindus, and the rest local Christians, Africans, and others. In the 1630s the total population of the Old Conquests — Ilhas, Bardes and Salcette — was perhaps a little more than a quarter of a million... Casualties in the endless skirmishes with Malabaris and others were often substantial. Cholera and malaria also took their toll; one estimate claims that from 1604 to 1634, 25,000 soldiers died in the Royal Hospital in Goa."
  31. ^ Smith, p. 19.
  32. ^ At the time, divided between the Eyalet of the Archipelago and the Rumelia Eyalet.
  33. ^ Israel (161,000) and Jordan (191,000). Avakov, p. 17.
  34. ^ A. Maddison, The World Economy Volume 1: A Millennial Perspective, 2001
  35. ^ Keul, István (2009). Early Modern Religious Communities in East-Central Europe: Ethnic Diversity, Denominational Plurality, and Corporative Politics in the Principality of Transylvania (1526-1691). BRILL. p. 41. ISBN 9004176527.
  36. ^ a b Murgescu, Bogdan (14 June 2016). Romania si Europa. Polirom. pp. 75–76. ISBN 9789734620418.
  37. ^ Walker, Sheila S. (2001). African Roots/American Cultures: Africa in the Creation of the Americas. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-0165-2.
  38. ^ Dale, Stephen Frederic (15 August 2002). Indian Merchants and Eurasian Trade, 1600-1750. ISBN 9780521525978. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  39. ^ Avakov, p. 15; the figure is 10.1 million for all of modern European Russia, including the steppe and Caucasian polities that were not yet under the Tsardom of Russia's control.
  40. ^ Wilson, p. 788
  41. ^ Charles A. Frazee, World History the Easy Way, Barron's Educational Series, ISBN 0-8120-9766-1, Google Print, 50
  42. ^ "European Population History". Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  43. ^ Li 1998, p. 160-171.
  44. ^ Gregory Hanlon, "Twilight of a Military Tradition", 1997, p. 122.
  45. ^ The combined population of Sweden (760,000), Finland (400,000), and Estonia (101,000). Avakov, p. 16.
  46. ^ "Historical Population of Scandinavia". Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  47. ^ "History of Iceland". Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  48. ^ Grigg, D. B. (18 December 1980). Population Growth and Agrarian Change: An Historical Perspective. ISBN 9780521296359. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  49. ^ R. E. Tyson, "Population Patterns", in M. Lynch, ed., The Oxford Companion to Scottish History (New York, 2001), pp. 487–8.
  50. ^ Smith, p. 19: 500,000 on the mainland and 150,000 in Corsica.
  51. ^ Avakov, p. 17; population within the borders of all modern Malaysia (encompassing all these states' areas on the Malay peninsula plus a chunk of Borneo) is given as 191,000, while Singapore's is 3,000.
  • Li, Tana (1998). Nguyen Cochinchina: Southern Vietnam in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Cornell University Press. ISBN 9781501732577.
  • Kurt Witthauer. Bevölkerung der Erde (1958)
  • Calendario atlante de Agostini, anno 99 (2003)
  • The Columbia gazetteer of the world (1998)
  • Britannica book of the year : world data (1997)