List of countries by income equality

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
World map of the Gini coefficients by country. Based on World Bank data ranging from 1992 to 2018.[1][needs update]

This is a list of countries or dependencies by income inequality metrics, including Gini coefficients. The Gini coefficient is a number between 0 and 1, where 0 corresponds with perfect equality (where everyone has the same income) and 1 corresponds with perfect inequality (where one person has all the income—and everyone else has no income).

Income distribution can vary greatly from wealth distribution in a country (see List of countries by distribution of wealth). Income from black market economic activity is not included and is the subject of current economic research.[2][3]

UN, World Bank and CIA list – income ratios and Gini indices[edit]

Row numbers are static. Other columns are sortable. This allows ranking of any column.

Key:

R/P 10%
The ratio of the average income of the richest 10% to the poorest 10%.
R/P 20%
The ratio of the average income of the richest 20% to the poorest 20%.
Gini
Gini index, a quantified representation of a nation's Lorenz curve. A Gini index of 0% expresses perfect equality, while index of 100% expresses maximal inequality.
UN
Data from the United Nations Development Programme.
World Bank
Data from the World Bank.
CIA
Data from the Central Intelligence Agency's The World Factbook.
Country Subregion Region UN R/P WB Gini[4] CIA R/P[5] CIA Gini[6]
10%[5] 20%[7] % Year 10% Year % Year
 
 Afghanistan Southern Asia Asia
 Albania Southern Europe Europe 7.2 4.2 33.2 2017 7.2 2004 26.9 2012 est.
 Algeria Northern Africa Africa 9.6 4.0 27.6 2011 9.6 1995 35.3 1995
 Angola Middle Africa Africa 9.0 51.3 2018
 Argentina South America Americas 31.6 8.8 41.4 2018 35.0 2007 Jan.–Mar. 41.7 2017
 Armenia Western Asia Asia 8.0 5.0 34.4 2018 25.8 2004 34.4[8] 2018[8]
 Australia Australia, New Zealand Oceania 12.5 6.3 34.4 2014 12.7 1994 30.3 2008
 Austria Western Europe Europe 6.9 4.9 29.7 2017 6.8 2004 26.3 2007
 Azerbaijan Western Asia Asia 9.7 26.6 2005 9.5 2001 33.7 2008
 Bahrain Western Asia Asia
 Bangladesh Southern Asia Asia 7.5 4.8 32.4 2016 7.5 2000 est. 32.1 2010
 Belarus Eastern Europe Europe 6.9 3.6 25.2 2018 6.9 2002 26.5 2011
 Belgium Western Europe Europe 8.2 4.2 27.4 2017 8.3 2000 25.9 2013 est.
 Belize Central America Americas 28.8 53.3 1999 19.9 2013 49.8 2014
 Benin Western Africa Africa 9.4 16.3 47.8 2015 9.4 2003 36.5 2003
 Bhutan Southern Asia Asia 6.6 37.4 2017 38.7 2012
 Bolivia South America Americas 93.9 11.8 42.2 2018 157.3 2002 46.6 2012
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Southern Europe Europe 5.4 5.4 33.0 2011 5.5 2001 36.2 2007
 Botswana Southern Africa Africa 43.0 15.0 53.3 2015 60.9 2009
 Brazil South America Americas 16.5 21.1 53.9 2018 16.3 2013 48.8 2018
 Bulgaria Eastern Europe Europe 7.0 7.3 40.4 2017 8.8 2005 35.4 2012
 Burkina Faso Western Africa Africa 11.6 5.3 35.3 2014 11.5 2003 39.5 2007
 Burundi Eastern Africa Africa 19.3 6.7 38.6 2013 19.3 1998 42.4 1998
 Cambodia South-eastern Asia Asia 12.2 12.0 2004 37.9 2008 est.
 Cameroon Middle Africa Africa 15.7 11.5 46.6 2014 15.4 2001 44.6 2001
 Canada Northern America Americas 9.4 6.2 33.8 2013 9.5 2000 32.1 2005
 Cape Verde Western Africa Africa 10.7 47.2 2007
 Central African Republic Middle Africa Africa 69.2 18.5 56.2 2008 68.1 1993 43.6 2003
 Chad Middle Africa Africa 10.0 43.3 2011 43.3 2011 est.
 Chile South America Americas 26.2 11.2 44.4 2017 32.1 2003 52.1 2009
 China Eastern Asia Asia 21.6 10.2 38.5 2016 21.8 2004 46.5 2016
 Colombia South America Americas 60.4 13.4 50.4 2018 56.3 2008 53.5 2012
 Comoros Eastern Africa Africa 11.2 45.3 2014 55.9 2004 est.
 DR Congo Middle Africa Africa 8.8 42.1 2012
 Congo Middle Africa Africa 12.8 48.9 2011
 Costa Rica Central America Americas 23.4 12.3 48.0 2018 37.3 2003 50.3 2009
 Ivory Coast Western Africa Africa 16.6 8.4 41.5 2015 17.0 2002 41.5 2008
 Croatia Southern Europe Europe 7.3 5.3 30.4 2017 7.2 2003 est. 32.0 2010
 Cuba Caribbean Americas
 Cyprus Western Asia Asia 5.3 31.4 2017 32.4 2013 est.
 Czech Republic Eastern Europe Europe 5.2 3.7 24.9 2017 5.2 1996 24.9 2012
 Denmark Northern Europe Europe 8.1 4.0 28.7 2017 12.0 2000 est. 24.8 2011 est.
 Djibouti Eastern Africa Africa 8.8 44.6 2017 40.9 2002
 Dominican Republic Caribbean Americas 25.3 10.5 43.7 2018 18.8 2012 45.7 2012 est.
 Ecuador South America Americas 35.2 10.7 45.4 2018 17.5 2006 Oct.[5] 48.5 2013 Dec.[5]
 Egypt Northern Africa Africa 8.0 4.6 31.5 2017 8.0 2000 30.8 2008
 El Salvador Central America Americas 38.6 7.0 38.6 2018 55.4 2002 46.9 2007
 Equatorial Guinea Middle Africa Africa
 Estonia Northern Europe Europe 10.8 5.4 30.4 2017 11.0 2003 32.9 2013
 Eswatini Southern Africa Africa 25.1 14.2 54.6 2016 25.4 2001 50.4 2001
 Ethiopia Eastern Africa Africa 6.6 7.1 35.0 2015 6.5 2000 33.0 2011
 EU Europe 8.6 2015 est. 30.6 2012 est.
 Fiji Melanesia Oceania 6.0 36.7 2013
 Finland Northern Europe Europe 5.6 3.9 27.4 2017 5.7 2000 26.8 2008
 France Western Europe Europe 9.1 5.2 31.6 2017 8.3 2004 30.1 2013
 Gabon Middle Africa Africa 7.4 38.0 2017
 Gambia Western Africa Africa 20.2 5.9 35.9 2015 20.6 1998 50.2 1998
 Georgia Western Asia Asia 15.4 7.1 36.4 2018 15.2 2003 46.0 2011
 Germany Western Europe Europe 6.9 5.1 31.9 2016 6.9 2000 27.0 2006
 Ghana Western Africa Africa 14.1 10.3 43.5 2016 13.7 1999 42.3 2012–2013
 Greece Southern Europe Europe 10.2 7.1 34.4 2017 10.4 2000 est. 34.4 2013 est.
 Guatemala Central America Americas 33.9 11.9 48.3 2014 48.2 2002 55.1 2007
 Guinea Western Africa Africa 10.5 5.5 33.7 2012 21.6 2006 39.4 2007
 Guinea-Bissau Western Africa Africa 19.0 12.6 50.7 2010 84.8 1991
 Guyana South America Americas 44.6 1998 26.0 1999 44.6 2007
 Haiti Caribbean Americas 54.4 8.6 41.1 2012 68.1 2001 60.8 2012
 Honduras Central America Americas 59.4 17.1 52.1 2018 35.2 2003 57.7 2007
 Hong Kong Eastern Asia Asia 17.8 53.9 2016
 Hungary Eastern Europe Europe 5.5 4.9 30.6 2017 5.6 2002 24.7 2009
 Iceland Northern Europe Europe 4.0 26.8 2015 28.0 2006
 India Southern Asia Asia 8.6 5.5 37.8 2011 8.6 2004 35.1 2011
 Indonesia South-eastern Asia Asia 7.8 6.6 39.0 2018 7.9 2002 38.8 2018
 Iran Southern Asia Asia 17.2 7.7 40.8 2017 16.9 1998 44.5 2006
 Iraq Western Asia Asia 4.4 29.5 2012
 Ireland Northern Europe Europe 9.4 5.0 32.8 2016 9.4 2000 33.9 2010
 Israel Western Asia Asia 13.4 8.5 39.0 2016 11.8 2005 37.6 2012
 Italy Southern Europe Europe 11.6 7.0 35.9 2017 11.7 2000 31.9 2012 est.
 Jamaica Caribbean Americas 17.3 45.5 2004 17.0 2004 45.5 2004
 Japan Eastern Asia Asia 4.5 5.4 32.9 2013 4.5 1993 37.9 2011
 Jordan Western Asia Asia 11.3 5.2 33.7 2010 11.3 2003 39.7 2007
 Kazakhstan Central Asia Asia 8.5 3.8 27.5 2017 8.0 2004 est. 28.9 2011
 Kenya Eastern Africa Africa 13.6 7.7 40.8 2015 18.6 2000 42.5 2008 est.
 North Korea Eastern Asia Asia
 South Korea Eastern Asia Asia 7.8 5.3 31.6 2012 5.9 2011 34.1 2015
 Kosovo Eastern Europe Europe[a] 29.0 2017
 Kuwait Western Asia Asia
 Kyrgyzstan Central Asia Asia 6.4 3.8 27.7 2018 6.4 2003 33.4 2007
 Laos South-eastern Asia Asia 8.3 5.9 36.4 2012 8.4 2002 36.7 2008
 Latvia Northern Europe Europe 11.6 5.8 35.6 2017 11.6 2003 35.2 2010
 Lebanon Western Asia Asia 5.1 31.8 2011
 Lesotho Southern Africa Africa 39.8 20.8 44.9 2017 48.2 2002 est. 63.2 1995
 Liberia Western Africa Africa 12.8 5.9 35.3 2016
 Libya Northern Africa Africa
 Lithuania Northern Europe Europe 10.4 7.2 37.3 2017 10.3 2003 35.5 2009
 Luxembourg Western Europe Europe 5.7 34.9 2017 6.8 2000 30.4 2013 est.
 Macau Eastern Asia Asia 35 2013
 North Macedonia Southern Europe Europe 12.5 7.3 34.2 2017 12.3 2003 43.6 2013
 Madagascar Eastern Africa Africa 19.2 8.7 42.6 2012 19.3 2001 47.5 2001
 Malawi Eastern Africa Africa 10.9 8.1 44.7 2016 11.0 2004 39.0 2004
 Malaysia South-eastern Asia Asia 22.1 8.2 41.0 2015 28.0 2003 est. 46.2 2009
 Maldives Southern Asia Asia 7.0 31.3 2016 37.4 2004 est.
 Mali Western Africa Africa 12.5 5.2 33.0 2009 12.6 2001 40.1 2001
 Malta Southern Europe Europe 4.5 29.2 2017 27.9 2013
 Mauritania Western Africa Africa 12.0 5.4 32.6 2014 11.8 2000 39.0 2000
 Mauritius Eastern Africa Africa 5.9 36.8 2017 35.9 2012 est.
 Mexico Central America Americas 21.6 8.8 45.4 2018 24.6 2004 48.3 2008
 Micronesia Micronesia Oceania 8.4 40.1 2013 61.1 2013 est.
 Moldova Eastern Europe Europe 8.2 3.6 25.7 2018 8.3 2003 33.0 2010
 Mongolia Eastern Asia Asia 8.2 5.1 32.7 2018 8.2 2002 36.5 2008
 Montenegro Southern Europe Europe 4.8 39.0 2015 26.2 2013 est.
 Morocco Northern Africa Africa 11.7 7.0 39.5 2013 11.9 1999 40.9 2007 est.
 Mozambique Eastern Africa Africa 18.8 14.2 54.0 2014 18.8 2002 45.6 2008
 Myanmar South-eastern Asia Asia 6.3 30.7 2017 11.6 1998
 Namibia Southern Africa Africa 106.6 22.8 59.1 2015 129.0 2003 59.7 2010
 Nepal Southern Asia Asia 15.8 5.0 32.8 2010 15.6 2004 32.8 2010
 Netherlands Western Europe Europe 9.2 4.2 28.5 2017 9.2 1999 25.1 2013
 New Zealand Australia, New Zealand Oceania 12.4 36.2 1997
 Nicaragua Central America Americas 31.0 10.2 46.2 2014 15.4 2001 40.5 2010
 Niger Western Africa Africa 46.0 5.4 34.3 2014 44.3 1995 34.0 2007
 Nigeria Western Africa Africa 17.8 9.1 35.1 2020 17.5 2003 43.7 2003
 Norway Northern Europe Europe 6.1 4.1 27.0 2017 6.0 2000 26.8 2010
 Oman Western Asia Asia
 Pakistan Southern Asia Asia 6.5 4.8 33.5 2015 6.6 2002 29.6 2011 FY
 Panama Central America Americas 49.9 15.9 49.2 2018 61.4 2003 51.9 2010 est.
 Papua New Guinea Melanesia Oceania 23.8 9.3 41.9 2009 23.8 1996 50.9 1996
 Paraguay South America Americas 38.8 11.7 46.2 2018 65.9 2003 53.2 2009
 Peru South America Americas 26.1 10.3 42.8 2018 31.5 2003 45.3 2012
 Philippines South-eastern Asia Asia 15.5 7.2 44.4 2015 15.5 2003 46.0 2012
 Poland Eastern Europe Europe 8.8 4.6 29.7 2017 8.7 2002 34.1 2009
 Portugal Southern Europe Europe 15.0 6.4 33.8 2017 9.2 1995 est. 34.2 2013 est.
 Qatar Western Asia Asia
 Romania Eastern Europe Europe 7.5 8.0 36.0 2017 7.4 2003 27.3 2012
 Russia Eastern Europe Europe 12.7 6.6 37.5 2018 12.8 2002 42 2012
 Rwanda Eastern Africa Africa 18.6 8.5 43.7 2016 18.2 2000 46.8 2000
 São Tomé and Príncipe Middle Africa Africa 4.7 56.3 2017
 Saudi Arabia Western Asia Asia
 Senegal Western Africa Africa 12.3 7.7 40.3 2011 12.4 2001 40.3 2011
 Serbia Southern Europe Europe 4.2 36.2 2017 38.7 2014 est.
 Seychelles Eastern Africa Africa 9.8 46.8 2013
 Sierra Leone Western Africa Africa 87.2 5.4 35.7 2018 87.2 1989 34.0 2011
 Singapore South-eastern Asia Asia 17.7 17.3 1998 46.4 2014
 Slovakia Eastern Europe Europe 6.7 4.1 25.2 2016 6.7 1996 25.3 2012
 Slovenia Southern Europe Europe 5.9 3.7 24.2 2017 5.9 1998 23.7 2012
 Somalia Eastern Africa Africa
 South Africa Southern Africa Africa 33.1 28.4 63.0 2014 31.9 2000 62.5 2013 est.
 South Sudan Eastern Africa Africa 13.0 46.3 2009 46.0 2010 est.
 Spain Southern Europe Europe 10.3 7.3 34.7 2017 10.2 2000 34.0 2011
 Sri Lanka Southern Asia Asia 11.1 6.8 39.8 2016 36.1 2003/04 FY 49.0 2010
 Saint Lucia Caribbean Americas 6.8 51.2 2016
 Sudan Northern Africa Africa 6.2 35.4 2009
 Suriname South America Americas 57.6 1999
 Sweden Northern Europe Europe 6.2 4.6 28.8 2017 6.2 2000 24.9 2013
 Switzerland Western Europe Europe 9.0 5.2 32.7 2017 8.9 2000 28.7 2012 est.
 Syria Western Asia Asia 35.8 2004
 Taiwan Eastern Asia Asia 6.1 2002 est. 33.8 2012
 Tajikistan Central Asia Asia 7.8 5.6 34.0 2015 7.8 2003 32.6 2006
 Tanzania Eastern Africa Africa 9.2 6.2 40.5 2017 9.3 2000 37.6 2007
 Thailand South-eastern Asia Asia 12.6 6.0 36.4 2018 12.4 2002 39.4 2010
 East Timor South-eastern Asia Asia 4.1 28.7 2014 31.9 2007 est.
 Togo Western Africa Africa 9.7 43.1 2015
 Trinidad and Tobago Caribbean Americas 12.9 40.3 1992
 Tunisia Northern Africa Africa 13.4 5.2 32.8 2015 13.7 2000 40.0 2005 est.
 Turkey Western Asia Asia 6.6 8.5 41.9 2018 17.1 2003 40.2 2010
 Turkmenistan Central Asia Asia 12.3 40.8 1999 12.2 1998 40.8 1998
 Uganda Eastern Africa Africa 16.6 8.2 42.8 2016 16.4 2002 39.5 2013
 Ukraine Eastern Europe Europe 5.9 3.5 26.1 2018 7.6 2006 28.2 2009
 United Arab Emirates Western Asia Asia 32.5 2014
 United Kingdom Northern Europe Europe 13.8 5.4 34.8 2016 13.6 1999 32.4 2012
 United States Northern America Americas 18.5 9.4 41.4 2016 14.0 2014 est. 47.0 2014
 Uruguay South America Americas 11.8 7.8 39.7 2018 17.9 2003 45.3 2010
 Uzbekistan Central Asia Asia 10.6 35.3 2003 10.6 2003 36.8 2003
 Venezuela South America Americas 18.8 15.8 46.9 2006 50.3 2003 39.0 2011
 Vietnam South-eastern Asia Asia 6.9 6.2 35.7 2018 10.0 2004 37.6 2008
 Palestine Western Asia Asia 5.6 33.7 2016
 Yemen Western Asia Asia 8.6 6.1 36.7 2014 8.6 2003 37.7 2005
 Zambia Eastern Africa Africa 21.1 57.1 2015 57.5 2010
 Zimbabwe Eastern Africa Africa 8.6 44.3 2017 50.1 2006
 World 12.0 2002 est. 38.0 2007

EU27 countries[edit]

Member state 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
 
 Austria 27.4 27.6 27.0 27.6 27.2 27.2 27.9 26.8 27.5
 Belgium 26.3 26.5 25.9 25.9 26.2 26.3 26.1 25.7 25.1
 Bulgaria 35.0 33.6 35.4 35.4 37.0 37.7 40.2 39.6 40.8
 Croatia 31.2 30.9 30.9 30.2 30.4 29.8 29.9 29.7 29.2
 Cyprus 29.2 31.0 32.4 34.8 33.6 32.1 30.8 29.1 31.1
 Czech Republic 25.2 24.9 24.6 25.1 25.0 25.1 24.5 24.0 24.0
 Denmark 26.6 26.5 26.8 27.7 27.4 27.7 27.6 27.8 27.5
 Estonia 31.9 32.5 32.9 35.6 34.8 32.7 31.6 30.6 30.5
 Finland 25.8 25.9 25.4 25.6 25.2 25.4 25.3 25.9 26.2
 France 30.8 30.5 30.1 29.2 29.2 29.3 28.8 28.5
 Germany 29.0 28.3 29.7 30.7 30.1 29.5 29.1 31.1 29.7
 Greece 33.5 34.3 34.4 34.5 34.2 34.3 33.4 32.3 31.0
 Hungary 26.9 27.2 28.3 28.6 28.2 28.2 28.1 28.7 28.0
 Ireland 29.8 30.4 30.7 31.1 29.7 29.6 30.6 28.9
 Italy 32.5 32.4 32.8 32.4 32.4 33.1 32.7 33.4
 Latvia 35.1 35.7 35.2 35.5 35.4 34.5 34.5 35.6 35.2
 Lithuania 33.0 32.0 34.6 35.0 37.9 37.0 37.6 36.9 35.4
 Luxembourg 27.2 28.0 30.4 28.7 28.5 29.6 29.2 31.3 32.3
 Malta 27.2 27.1 28.0 27.7 28.1 28.6 28.2 28.7 28.0
 Netherlands 25.8 25.4 25.1 26.2 26.7 26.9 27.1 27.4 26.8
 Poland 31.1 30.9 30.7 30.8 30.6 29.8 29.2 27.8 28.5
 Portugal 34.2 34.5 34.2 34.5 34.0 33.9 33.5 32.1 31.9
 Romania 33.5 34.0 34.6 35.0 37.4 34.7 33.1 35.1 34.8
 Slovakia 25.7 25.3 24.2 26.1 23.7 24.3 23.2 20.9 20.3
 Slovenia 23.8 23.7 24.4 25.0 24.5 24.4 23.7 23.4 23.9
 Spain 34.0 34.2 33.7 34.7 34.6 34.5 34.1 33.2 33.0
 Sweden 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.9 26.7 27.6 28.0 27.0 27.6
 Serbia[n 1] 38.0 38.3 40.0 39.8 37.6 35.6
 Montenegro[n 2][9] 38.5 36.5 36.5 36.5 36.7
 European Union 30.5 30.4 30.6 30.9 30.8 30.6 30.3 30.4
Eurozone (EA19) 30.6 30.5 30.7 31.0 30.7 30.7 30.4 30.6

OECD countries[edit]

Gini coefficient, before taxes and transfers[edit]

Country mid-70s mid-80s ~ 1990 mid-90s ~ 2000 mid-2000s Late 2000s
 
 Australia 0.467 0.476 0.465 0.469
 Austria 0.433 0.472
 Belgium 0.449 0.472 0.464 0.494 0.469
 Canada 0.385 0.395 0.403 0.430 0.440 0.436 0.441
 Chile 0.441 0.414 0.426
 Czech Republic 0.442 0.472 0.474 0.444
 Denmark 0.373 0.396 0.417 0.415 0.417 0.416
 Estonia 0.504 0.458
 Finland 0.343 0.387 0.479 0.478 0.483 0.465
 France 0.380 0.370 0.473 0.490 0.485 0.483
 Germany 0.439 0.429 0.459 0.471 0.499 0.504
 Greece 0.448 0.426 0.446 0.466 0.454 0.436
 Hungary 0.452 0.496 0.463 0.497 0.466
 Iceland 0.365 0.382
 Ireland
 Israel 0.472 0.476 0.494 0.504 0.513 0.498
 Italy 0.420 0.437 0.508 0.516 0.557 0.534
 Japan 0.345 0.403 0.432 0.443 0.462
 Luxembourg 0.383 0.427 0.421 0.454 0.482
 Mexico 0.453 0.532 0.517 0.491 0.494
 Netherlands 0.426 0.473 0.474 0.484 0.424 0.426 0.426
 New Zealand 0.408 0.468 0.488 0.484 0.473 0.455
 Norway 0.351 0.404 0.426 0.447 0.410
 Poland 0.542 0.470
 Portugal 0.457 0.436 0.490 0.479 0.542 0.521
 Slovakia 0.458 0.416
 Slovenia 0.452 0.423
 South Korea 0.331 0.344
 Spain 0.461
 Sweden 0.389 0.404 0.408 0.438 0.446 0.432 0.426
 Switzerland 0.409
 Turkey 0.470
 United Kingdom 0.338 0.419 0.439 0.453 0.458 0.445 0.456
 United States 0.406 0.436 0.450 0.477 0.476 0.486 0.486

Gini coefficient, after taxes and transfers[edit]

Country mid-70s mid-80s ~ 1990 mid-90s ~ 2000 mid-2000s Late 2000s
 
 Australia 0.309 0.317 0.315 0.336
 Austria 0.236 0.238 0.252 0.265 0.261
 Belgium 0.274 0.287 0.289 0.271 0.259
 Canada 0.304 0.293 0.287 0.289 0.318 0.317 0.324
 Chile 0.427 0.403 0.394
 Czech Republic 0.232 0.257 0.260 0.268 0.256
 Denmark 0.221 0.226 0.215 0.226 0.232 0.248
 Estonia 0.349 0.315
 Finland 0.235 0.209 0.218 0.247 0.254 0.259
 France 0.300 0.290 0.277 0.287 0.288 0.293
 Germany 0.251 0.256 0.266 0.264 0.285 0.295
 Greece 0.413 0.336 0.336 0.345 0.321 0.307
 Hungary 0.273 0.294 0.293 0.291 0.272
 Iceland 0.257 0.301
 Ireland 0.331 0.324 0.304 0.314 0.293
 Israel 0.326 0.329 0.338 0.347 0.378 0.371
 Italy 0.309 0.297 0.348 0.343 0.352 0.337
 Japan 0.304 0.323 0.337 0.321 0.329
 Luxembourg 0.247 0.259 0.261 0.258 0.288
 Mexico 0.452 0.519 0.507 0.474 0.476
 Netherlands 0.263 0.272 0.292 0.297 0.292 0.284 0.294
 New Zealand 0.271 0.318 0.335 0.339 0.335 0.330
 Norway 0.222 0.243 0.261 0.276 0.250
 Poland 0.316 0.349 0.305
 Portugal 0.354 0.329 0.359 0.356 0.385 0.353
 Slovakia 0.268 0.257
 Slovenia 0.246 0.236
 South Korea 0.306 0.315
 Spain 0.371 0.337 0.343 0.342 0.319 0.317
 Sweden 0.212 0.198 0.209 0.211 0.243 0.234 0.259
 Switzerland 0.279 0.276 0.303
 Turkey 0.434 0.490 0.430 0.409
 United Kingdom 0.268 0.309 0.354 0.336 0.351 0.331 0.345
 United States 0.316 0.337 0.348 0.361 0.357 0.380 0.378

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Serbia is a negotiating candidate to the EU.
  2. ^ Montenegro is a negotiating candidate to the EU.
  1. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008. Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 97 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 112 UN member states have recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2020-07-23.
  2. ^ Underground economy and income inequality: two connected aspects in the oncoming context of Italian federalism Archived 2012-02-09 at the Wayback Machine. By Iacopo Odoardi and Carmen Pagliari. Vol. 15 No. 1, 2011 Archived 2012-02-09 at the Wayback Machine. Global & Local Economic Review.
  3. ^ The Size of the Shadow Economies of 145 Countries all over the World: First Results over the Period 1999 to 2003. December 2004. By Friedrich Schneider (University of Linz and IZA Bonn). Institute for the Study of Labor.
  4. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d Monino, Jean-Louis; Sedkaoui, Soraya (2016-03-11), "Data Development Mechanisms", Big Data, Open Data and Data Development, Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 43–72, doi:10.1002/9781119285199.ch3, ISBN 978-1-119-28519-9, retrieved 2021-06-26
  6. ^ Distribution of family income – Gini index, The World Factbook, CIA, accessed on September 24, 2020.
  7. ^ "| Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
  8. ^ a b "Gini Index coefficient – distribution of family income - The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2021-04-19.
  9. ^ "GINI Index for Montenegro". 18 January 2018. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]