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2021 Haiti earthquake
Haiti Earthquake 10.jpg
Destruction from the earthquake
8.210.229.130 is located in Haiti
8.210.229.130
Port-au-Prince
Port-au-Prince
Léogâne
Léogâne
Les Cayes
Les Cayes
UTC time2021-08-14 12:29:08
ISC event620986707
USGS-ANSSComCat
Local date14 August 2021
Local time09:30:09
Magnitude7.2 Mw
7.5 Mwpd[1]
Depth10.0 km (6.2 mi)
Epicenter18°25′01″N 73°28′48″W / 18.417°N 73.480°W / 18.417; -73.480Coordinates: 18°25′01″N 73°28′48″W / 18.417°N 73.480°W / 18.417; -73.480[2]
FaultEnriquillo–Plantain Garden fault zone
TypeOblique-reverse
Total damage$1 billion USD[2]
Max. intensityIX (Violent)[2]
AftershocksAt least 900[3]
Casualties6,342 dead
27,345 injured
793 missing[3][4]

At 08:29:09 EDT on 14 August 2021, a magnitude 7.2 earthquake struck the Tiburon Peninsula in the Caribbean nation of Haiti.[2] It had a 10-kilometre-deep (6.2 mi) hypocenter near Petit-Trou-de-Nippes, approximately 150 kilometres (93 mi) west of the capital, Port-au-Prince.[5][6] Tsunami warnings were briefly issued for the Haitian coast.[6] At least 6,342 people were confirmed killed as of 1 October 2021 and 27,345 injured. An estimated 650,000 people are in need of assistance. [7] At least 137,500 buildings were damaged or destroyed.[8][9] The quake is the deadliest earthquake and deadliest natural disaster of 2021. It is also the worst disaster to strike Haiti since the 2010 earthquake. UNICEF estimates more than half a million children were affected.[10][11] The Haitian Civil Protection General Directorate (DGPC) warned of a possible large humanitarian crisis resulting from the earthquake.[12] USAID provided US $32 million in foreign aid to Haiti for reconstruction efforts following the devastating earthquake.[13][14] This earthquake had the most casualties of any disaster since the 2018 Sulawesi earthquake, which killed between 4,340 and 5,007 people, mostly from a tsunami. The economic loss from this earthquake is estimated at over 1 billion dollars.[2]

Tectonic setting[edit]

Haiti lies within the complex plate boundary zone between the North American Plate to the north and the Caribbean Plate to the south. This zone is interpreted to contain a number of microplates, particularly the Gonâve Microplate, which is bounded to the north by the Septentrional-Oriente fault zone and to the south by the Walton fault zone and the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault zone, all of which are active left lateral transform faults. Although dominated by lateral motion the plate boundary zone also accommodates a component of north-south shortening.[15] This has led to overall transpression along the main strike-slip faults.

In the Tiburon Peninsula the main structure is the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault zone, which runs along its length. This fault zone carries almost half of the left lateral displacement between the North American and Caribbean plates, with a displacement rate of about 7 mm per year.[2] The epicentre of the 2010 Haiti earthquake was located at the eastern end of the peninsula and was caused by movement on previously unknown thrust faults that form part of the overall fault zone, without rupturing the main strike-slip fault strand.[16] The same fault zone is thought to have been the source of the 1751 and 1770 earthquakes that destroyed the capital Port-au-Prince.[17]

Earthquake[edit]

According to the United States Geological Survey, the earthquake occurred as a result of oblique-reverse faulting near the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault zone 125 km (78 mi; 67 nmi) west of the Haitian capital Port-au-Prince, consistent with its location and the observed focal mechanism. It had an estimated hypocentral depth of 10.0 km (6.2 mi).[2]

Finite-fault Inversion and Back Projection indicated an earthquake rupture on two separate strike-slip and reverse faults that are not connected to the main strand of the plate boundary fault. The initial rupture occurred on a blind thrust fault, then jumped onto a strike-slip fault; both separate branches of the plate boundary fault, and previously unidentified. The rupture process of the earthquake indicate the highly oblique motion between the two tectonic plates. The rupture may have been encouraged by the 2010 event due to coulomb stress transfer.[18]

Intensity[edit]

Modified Mercalli intensities in selected locations
MMI Locations
IX (Violent) Les Cayes[19]
VIII (Severe) Petit-Trou-de-Nippes[19]
VII (Very strong) Grand-Goave[19]
VI (Strong) Port Au Prince
V (Moderate) Jacmel[19]
IV (Light) Kingston

The intensity of the earthquake reached Modified Mercalli intensity scale (MMI) IX (Violent) in Les Cayes and MMI VI (Strong) in Port-au-Prince.[19] The epicenter of the 2010 quake was much closer to Port-au-Prince (25 km), and its MMI rating was VII (Very strong).[20]

The earthquake was also felt in Jamaica, where the intensity reached MMI IV (Light) in Kingston.[21][19]

Tsunami warnings were issued for the country, which were cancelled later that day.[22]

Aftershocks[edit]

At least 900 aftershocks have been recorded following the mainshock, the strongest being Mw 5.8 in magnitude and centered approximately 65 kilometers further west on the Tiburon Peninsula. Fresh tremors shook Les Cayes city on August 19, 2021.[23][24] Several casualties were recorded.

2021 Haiti earthquake sequence (only earthquakes with magnitudes 5.0 or greater)
Date and time (UTC) Location M MMI Ref
2021-08-14 12:29:08 13 km SSE of Petit Trou de Nippes 7.2 IX [2]
2021-08-14 12:49:33 20 km WNW of Cavaillon 5.2 V [25]
2021-08-14 16:08:03 10 km NW of Baradères 5.1 VII [26]
2021-08-14 18:11:10 12 km NNE of Baradères 5.1 III [27]
2021-08-15 02:37:53 11 km NW of Petit Trou de Nippes 5.0 III [28]
2021-08-15 03:20:45 12 km NNE of Chardonnière 5.8 VII [29]

Interactive map of 2021 Haiti earthquake

Tsunami[edit]

Widespread tsunami warnings were issued throughout the Caribbean, with waves up to 3 to 10 feet in height in Port au Prince.[2][22] The tsunami warning was later rescinded.[22] The wave would have been bigger had the earthquake's epicentre been offshore.

Damage[edit]

Debris from a building strewn on the ground following the earthquake

The city of Les Cayes, Haiti's third-largest city, was the closest to the epicenter of the earthquake. The city suffered extensive damage including many collapsed homes, places of worship, and commercial buildings.[30] According to the Haitian Civil Protection Agency, at least 37,300 or more homes were destroyed and 46,000 others were damaged as of August 16.[31][32] The Haitian Civil Protection General Directorate later reported that more than 60,700 homes have been destroyed and 76,100 others have sustained damages as of August 18.[9] There were also a number of hotels that were severely damaged or collapsed.[33] At least 53 medical facilities suffered partial damage while six were totally destroyed. In addition to that, the quake damaged or destroyed 308 schools.[34]

Places of worship[edit]

The Immaculee Conception Church of Les Anglais, a historical landmark constructed in 1907, collapsed when the quake struck during a Mass.[35] The collapse of the facade of the church killed 17 people. Two individuals trapped under the rubble were rescued by nearby construction workers.[36]

At Toirac village, just outside Les Cayes, 20 people died in the collapse of the St. Famille du Toirac church during a funeral Mass.[37]

In Marceline, a small town 30 minutes away from Les Cayes, the main Catholic church collapsed. Two women cleaning the church were killed. In the Les Cay Diocese, more than 220 Catholic places of worship were destroyed. [38]

Casualties[edit]

Haitian prime minister Ariel Henry declared a state of emergency due to the high number of casualties and the severe damage.[39] At least 6,342 people died in the earthquake.[3][40] The Hôtel Le Manguier in Les Cayes collapsed in the earthquake, killing several people, including Gabriel Fortuné, the former senator and former mayor of Les Cayes.[41][42] Portions of the Catholic bishop's residence in Les Cayes collapsed, killing a priest and two employees and injuring Cardinal Chibly Langlois.[43] In addition to the deaths, at least 27,345 people have been injured and 793 are still missing. Two more unconfirmed deaths were also reported.[3]

A report published by UNICEF on 30 August 2021 stated that at least 800,000 people, 250,000 of them children, had been affected by the quake and are in need of humanitarian aid. An estimated 81,000 Haitians have no access to safe drinking water.[34] The United Nations in Haiti said 650,000 Haitians are in need of humanitarian aid, and the World Food Programme stated that 754,200 are experiencing food insecurity.[8]

According to the United Nations, Haiti needs more than $187 million of aid to support Haiti after the disaster. [44]

Aftermath[edit]

Search and rescue teams of Haitian police and Haitian health department workers were joined by volunteers.[45] Foreign charities, nongovernmental organizations, and other volunteer groups sent workers, supplies, and equipment to help in the recovery and search and rescue.[46]

On August 23, rescue workers found 24 people, 20 adults, and four children, alive under the rubble of a collapsed building near the mountain Pic Macaya. The survivors were then transported to Camp-Perrin, where they received further treatment for their injuries.[47] Just a few days before, on August 17, 16 people were rescued from a former United Nations occupied building in Les Cayes. Rescuers also recovered nine bodies from the building.[48]

The United Nations requested over $180 million to aid in recovery efforts related to providing basic living assistance to victims and the surrounding area.[49] Due to the destruction of critical markets and agriculture, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Administration requested $20 million to aid in recovering farming practices. Grand'Anse, Nippes, and Sudd have been cited as being the most negatively impacted by food loss and scarcity.[49]

Shelter has been cited as the greatest need of the affected region. More than 50,000 homes and shelters were destroyed. Haitian people are sleeping in homes missing roofs and walls, open fields, and public buildings. [50]

Hurricane Grace[edit]

Rescue efforts were hindered due to rain from Tropical Depression Grace on 16 August.[51] The National Hurricane Center forecasted Tropical Depression Grace to produce up to 15 inches (38 cm) of rainfall in Haiti, threatening rescue and recovery efforts in the affected area.[52] Torrential rain and flood brought by the storm threatened the affected area with the potential for mudslides.[53]

As a direct result, many villages were left disconnected so the villagers started voluntary rebuilding. The trust towards the government is low in the areas as the citizens do not expect help due to the great complications, further mobilizing the voluntary project.[54]

Response[edit]

National[edit]

According to Prime Minister and acting President Ariel Henry, local hospitals have been overrun by the large inflow of injured victims after the earthquake. Henry declared a month-long state of emergency for the country after the quake.[30]

International[edit]

Additionally, Mexico, Peru, Argentina, Chile and Venezuela have offered assistance in the search for survivors.[62] A group of 34 firefighters from Ecuador were dispatched to assist in search and rescue efforts.[62]

Japanese professional tennis player Naomi Osaka, who is of Haitian descent, stated in a tweet that she would donate all her prize money at the Cincinnati Masters to support rescue and recovery efforts ongoing in Haiti.[63][64]

American sportswear brand Skechers announced on August 19 that they would be contributing US $1 million in donations to support ongoing rescue and recovery efforts. The brand said they would be donating to three organizations; CORE (Community Organized Relief Effort), Hope for Haiti and World Central Kitchen.[65] Kenneth Cole is donating a percentage of their net sales to the St. Luke Foundation and asking their customers to donate $10 for extra support. [66] Amazon has sent over 35,000 emergency items to Haiti: including medical supplies, tents, water filters and more.[67]

Political and humanitarian concerns[edit]

Moïse assassination and current government[edit]

Prime Minister Jovenel Moïse was assassinated in his home on July 7, 2021.[68][69] Forty four people were arrested in connection to the assassination[69] and Moïse's death left Haiti in political turmoil.[70] The official presidential election date is set for November 7, 2021. Acting president Ariel Henry said that the country must appoint a new electoral board and deal with the increasing gang violence and looting.[70] The lack of a strong government results in unorganized aid distribution and more room for gang violence and looting.

Gang violence and looting[edit]

Gangs have overtaken neighborhoods and villages in Haiti. "According to the National Human Rights Defense Network, there are more than 90 gangs in the country, likely with thousands of members and far more powerful than the police," Bloomberg reports. [71] Gangs have control over major roads heading south. In mid-August, the gang announced a ceasefire to allow trucks to use the road to provide aid to southern communities. Several trucks were looted at gunpoint, despite the truce. [71] On August 19, two of Haiti's doctors, including one of the few orthopedic surgeons, were kidnapped. It is unclear whether gangs were responsible for these abductions; however kidnapping is a common gang practice. The kidnappers contacted the doctor's families, however the ransom demands are unknown. [72]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Earthquake with magnitude of 7.5 strikes Haiti".
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "M 7.2 - Nippes, Haiti". earthquake.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d "Death toll from Haiti earthquake rises to 6,342". BERNAMA. 9 July 2021.
  4. ^ "Haiti: Earthquake Situation Report No. 4 (7 September 2021)". ReliefWeb. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 7 September 2021. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  5. ^ European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre. "Earthquake, Magnitude 7.2 – HAITI REGION – 2021 August 14, 12:29:09 UTC". EMSC-CSEM. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  6. ^ a b "Quake kills hundreds in Haiti, worsening Caribbean nation's plight". Reuters. 14 August 2021. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  7. ^ "2021 Haiti Earthquake Situation Report #1 - September 1, 2021 - Haiti". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  8. ^ a b "Haiti: Earthquake Situation Report No. 6 (23 September 2021)". ReliefWeb. 2021. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  9. ^ a b "Business Guide: Haiti Earthquake Humanitarian Response, August 2021 – Haiti". ReliefWeb. 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  10. ^ "Over half a million children affected by Haiti earthquake". www.unicef.org. Retrieved 21 August 2021.
  11. ^ "Haiti earthquake: over half a million children at risk of waterborne diseases - UNICEF". www.unicef.org.
  12. ^ "Haiti: Earthquake - Aug 2021". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 21 August 2021.
  13. ^ "USAID provides $32 million to respond to Haiti earthquake - Haiti".
  14. ^ "Haiti earthquake aid hampered by delays". The New Humanitarian. 7 September 2021.
  15. ^ DeMets, C.; Wiggins-Grandison W. (2007). "Deformation of Jamaica and motion of the Gonâve microplate from GPS and seismic data" (PDF). Geophysical Journal International. 168 (1): 362–378. Bibcode:2007GeoJI.168..362D. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.03236.x. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
  16. ^ Hayes, G.P.; Briggs, R.W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E.J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.W.; Crone, A.J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M. (2010). "Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake" (PDF). Nature Geoscience. 3 (11): 800–805. Bibcode:2010NatGe...3..800H. doi:10.1038/ngeo977.
  17. ^ Ben Finley (16 August 2021). "Why Haiti Is Prone to Devastating Earthquakes". WRC-TV. Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  18. ^ Ryo Okuwaki; Wenyuan Fan. "Oblique convergence causes both thrust and strike-slip1ruptures during the 2021 M 7.2 Haiti earthquake". EarthArXiv. doi:10.31223/X5GG8M. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  19. ^ a b c d e f "M 7.2 – 13 km SSE of Petit Trou de Nippes, Haiti". earthquake.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on 15 August 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  20. ^ "M 7.0 – 10 km SE of Léogâne, Haiti". earthquake.usgs.gov. USGS–ANSS. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  21. ^ "'The longest ever': Jamaicans react after quake rattles island". Jamaicaobserver.com. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  22. ^ a b c Paz, Isabella Grullón (14 August 2021). "Haiti quake prompted tsunami warning that was later rescinded". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  23. ^ Cite error: The named reference Haiti_2248 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  24. ^ "Photos: Tensions in quake-hit Haiti grow as death toll tops 2,000".
  25. ^ "M 5.2 – 20 km WNW of Cavaillon, Haiti". earthquake.usgs.gov. USGS. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  26. ^ "M 5.1 – 10 km NW of Baradères, Haiti". USGS. Archived from the original on 15 August 2021. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  27. ^ "M 5.1 – 12 km NNE of Baradères, Haiti". USGS. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  28. ^ "M 5.0 – 11 km NW of Petit Trou de Nippes, Haiti". USGS. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  29. ^ "M 5.8 – 12 km NNE of Chardonnière, Haiti". earthquake.usgs.gov. USGS. Archived from the original on 15 August 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  30. ^ a b VOA News (14 August 2021). "Haiti Earthquake Death Toll Climbs Past 300". Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Voice of America. Archived from the original on 15 August 2021. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
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  32. ^ "Haiti: Earthquake – Flash Update No. 2 (16 August 2021) – Haiti". ReliefWeb. 2021. Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  33. ^ Press Association 2021. "Hunt for survivors goes on after earthquake leaves at least 304 dead in Haiti". Enfield Independent. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  34. ^ a b UNICEF (30 August 2021). "UNICEF Haiti Humanitarian Situation Report No. 4 (Earthquake) - 30 August 2021". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  35. ^ "Parishoners killed in quake-damaged historic Haiti church". France 24. 17 August 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  36. ^ Amelie Baron (16 August 2021). "Parishioners Killed In Quake-damaged Historic Haiti Church". Barron's. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  37. ^ Laura Gottesdiener (17 August 2021). "Haiti mourners tell of church collapse horror during quake". Reuters. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  38. ^ "Churches In Haiti Lie In Ruins After The Earthquake But Still Try To Comfort And Help". NPR.org. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  39. ^ "Haiti earthquake causes several deaths, 'enormous damage': PM". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  40. ^ Charles, Jacqueline (14 September 2021). "'It's not the end of the world. Life will return.' A month after the Haiti earthquake". Miami Herald.
  41. ^ "Haïti-Séïsme: Jean Gabriel Fortuné est mort" [Earthquake in Haiti: Jean Gabriel Fortuné is dead] (in French). Cayes, Haiti. Vant Bèf Info. 14 August 2021. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  42. ^ "Tremblement de terre: l'ancien sénateur Gabriel Fortuné parmi les personnes tuées" [Earthquake: former senator Gabriel Fortuné among those killed] (in French). Le Nouvelliste. 15 September 2020. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  43. ^ "Cardinal injured, priest dead after earthquake in Haiti". Catholic News Agency. 14 August 2021. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  44. ^ "Haiti: $187.3 million appeal to support people affected by earthquake". UN News. 25 August 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  45. ^ "Death toll from massive Haiti earthquake soars". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  46. ^ Arnesen, Ingrid (15 August 2021). "Death toll from massive Haiti earthquake soars past 700". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  47. ^ "Twenty-four, including 4 children, found alive in rubble". The Haitian Times. 23 August 2021. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  48. ^ "Sixteen people found alive, 9 dead from building that once housed UN". The Haitian Times. 17 August 2021. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  49. ^ a b Charles, Jacqueline (10 September 2021). "UN urgently appeals for funding to help Haitian children, farmers hit by earthquake". Miami Herald.
  50. ^ "The U.S. Is Pledging Aid To Haiti But The Success Of Past Efforts Has Been Mixed". NPR.org. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  51. ^ "Haiti quake death toll climbs to 1,419 as heavy rain complicates rescue efforts". Axios. 16 August 2021. Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  52. ^ "Haiti braces for Tropical Depression Grace as Fred takes aim at Florida". CBS News. The Associated Press. 16 August 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  53. ^ Stevenson, Mark; Sanson, Evans (17 August 2021). "Tropical storm drenching earthquake-stricken Haiti". Miami Herald. Associated Press. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  54. ^ Kurmanaev, Anatoly (20 August 2021). "'We're on Our Own': Many Earthquake Survivors Expect No Help From Haitian Officials". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 August 2021.
  55. ^ "Tras el terremoto, la Cancillería argentina organiza ayuda humanitaria en Haití" [After the earthquake, the Argentine Foreign Ministry organizes humanitarian aid in Haiti]. www.cancilleria.gob.ar (in Spanish). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Worship. 16 August 2021. Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  56. ^ Helen Moka et Stéphane Blais (14 August 2021). "Prime Minister Justin Trudeau offers help in deadly Haiti earthquake". Global News. The Canadian Press. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  57. ^ "México al rescate, envía ayuda humanitaria a Haití" on YouTube
  58. ^ El Financiero; AP News; The Washington Post (16 August 2021). "Mexico sends planeloads of humanitarian aid to Haiti". Mexico News Daily. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  59. ^ a b "Bolsonaro diz que ONU pediu ajuda de tropas brasileiras no Haiti". Veja (in Portuguese). 16 August 2021.
  60. ^ Celine Castronuovo (14 August 2021). "Biden authorizes US response to Haiti after earthquake". The Hill. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  61. ^ Office of Press Relations (26 August 2021). "USAID provides $32 million to respond to Haiti earthquake". USAID. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  62. ^ a b "Séisme en Haïti : les recherches se poursuivent pour retrouver des survivants". France 24. 15 August 2021. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  63. ^ "Naomi Osaka to donate prize money to Haitian earthquake relief efforts". Reuters. 15 August 2021. Retrieved 15 August 2021 – via CNN.
  64. ^ NaomiOsaka大坂なおみ [@naomiosaka] (14 August 2021). "Really hurts to see all the devastation that's going on in Haiti, and I feel like we really can't catch a break. I'm about to play a tournament this week and I'll give all the prize money to relief efforts for Haiti. I know our ancestors blood is strong we'll keep rising 🇭🇹❤️🙏🏾" (Tweet). Retrieved 15 August 2021 – via Twitter.
  65. ^ Nikara Johns (19 August 2021). "Skechers Donates $1 Million to Haiti Earthquake Relief Efforts". Footwear News. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  66. ^ "These Brands and Retailers Are Donating to Relief Efforts in Haiti". www.yahoo.com. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  67. ^ "Amazon donates tens of thousands of emergency supplies to aid Haiti". US About Amazon. 18 August 2021. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  68. ^ Porter, Catherine; Crowley, Michael; Méheut, Constant (7 July 2021). "Haiti's President Assassinated in Nighttime Raid, Shaking a Fragile Nation". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  69. ^ a b "Haiti president's assassination: What we know so far". BBC News. 14 September 2021. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  70. ^ a b Kurmanaev, Anatoly (22 August 2021). "In Haiti, Need Is Overwhelming, but Some Politicians' Charity Rings False". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  71. ^ a b "Gangs Now Run Haiti, Filling a Vacuum Left by Years of Collapse". Bloomberg.com. 2 September 2021. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  72. ^ "Gangs abduct 2 doctors in Haiti, including a needed surgeon". AP NEWS. 19 August 2021. Retrieved 20 September 2021.

External links[edit]