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2021 Czech legislative election

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2021 Czech legislative election

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All 200 seats in the Chamber of Deputies
101 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Turnout65.43% Increase 4.6 pp
  First party Second party
  Andrej Babiš v roce 2020 (cropped).jpg Petr Fiala 2019 Praha.jpg
Leader Andrej Babiš Petr Fiala
Alliance SPOLU
Leader since 1 August 2012 18 January 2014
Leader's seat Ústí nad Labem South Moravia
Last election 78 seats, 29.6% 42 seats, 22.4%
Seats won 72 71
Seat change Decrease 6 Increase 29
Popular vote 1,458,121 1,493,701
Percentage 27.1% 27.8%
Swing Decrease 2.5 pp Increase 5.4 pp

  Third party Fourth party
  Ivan Bartoš 8 May 2021.jpg Tomio Okamura portrét (cropped).jpg
Leader Ivan Bartoš Tomio Okamura
Party Pirates SPD
Alliance Pirates and Mayors
Leader since 2 April 2016 5 May 2015
Leader's seat Ústí nad Labem Moravia-Silesia
Last election 28 seats, 16.0% 22 seats, 10.6%
Seats won 37 20
Seat change Increase 9 Decrease 2
Popular vote 839,448 513,900
Percentage 15.6% 9.6%
Swing Decrease 0.4 pp Decrease 1.0 pp

2021 Czech general election.svg
2021 Czech general election - Parties.svg
ANO 2021.svg
SPOLU - 2021.svg
Piráti a STAN - 2021.svg
SPD - 2021.svg
Volební účast PSP 2021.svg

Prime Minister before election

Andrej Babiš

Prime Minister after election


Legislative elections were held in the Czech Republic on 8 and 9 October 2021. All 200 members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected and the leader of the resulting government is set to become the Prime Minister of the Czech Republic. Following the 2017 Czech legislative election, the country has been ruled by a minority government consisting of ANO 2011 (ANO), led by prime minister Andrej Babiš, and the Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD), led by interior minister Jan Hamáček, with confidence and supply support from the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (KSČM) until April 2021. The largest opposition party was the Civic Democratic Party (ODS), followed by the Czech Pirate Party. Other parties in the Chamber of Deputies included SPD, TOP 09, STAN, and KDU-ČSL.

Babiš ran again as leader of ANO, and the main opposition parliamentary parties formed two electoral alliances, SPOLU and Pirates and Mayors (PaS). ANO was front runner of the election, as it was polling first ahead of SPOLU and PaS prior election.[1][2][3] No opinion poll placed SPOLU in the first place,[4] and the result was a surprising victory for the liberal conservative alliance SPOLU, which received the highest number of votes, while the populist ANO received the highest number of seats. It was the closest legislative election in the history of Czech Republic.[5]

The opposition parties won a majority in the Chamber of Deputies and agreed to form a coalition government with SPOLU leader Petr Fiala as the new prime minister.[6][7][8] Traditional left-wing parties ČSSD and KSČM failed to reach the 5% threshold to win any seats in the Chamber of Deputies for the first time since the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993.[9] The Pirates, which were one of the leading opposition parties, were heavily defeated due to preferential votes and won just 4 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.[10]


According to the Constitution of the Czech Republic, an election to the Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Czech parliament, must be held every four years. The government is answerable to the Chamber of Deputies and remains in power only with the confidence of the majority of members of parliament. Article 19(1) of the constitution states that any citizen of the Czech Republic who has right to vote and is 21 years old is eligible to serve as an MP.[11]

ANO 2011 (ANO) emerged as the largest party in the 2017 legislative election and formed a minority government, which then lost a vote of confidence on 16 January 2018. The party formed a coalition government with the Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD), supported by the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (KSČM), which lasted until April 2021. Andrej Babiš became the new prime minister. The Civic Democratic Party (ODS) emerged as the second largest party and main opposition party, narrowly ahead of the Czech Pirate Party.[12]

2018 Senate and municipal elections

In 2018, voters elected 27 of 81 members of the Senate and approximately 61,900 members of local councils. ODS won the Senate election with 10 senators elected.[13] ANO won the municipal elections in most regional cities, with ODS finishing first in Prague and STAN in Liberec.[14] ČSSD and KSČM lost over half of their votes and seats in municipal councils.[15][16]

2019 European Parliament election

In May 2019, voters elected 21 members of the European Parliament. ANO came first, with ODS and the Pirates close behind in number of seats. As ČSSD failed to achieve more than 5 percent of votes in national elections for the first time since the mid-1990s, it did not get any seat.[17][18][19]

2020 Senate and regional elections

In October 2020, voters elected 675 members of regional assemblies in 13 regions of the nation, except Prague, which then formed regional governments. ANO won the election with 21.8% of votes but opposition parties, especially the Pirates, made gains, while allies of ANO were heavily defeated.[20][21][22] The governing parties were also heavily defeated in the Senate elections, which were won by Mayors and Independents ahead of ODS.[23]

Coalitions of political parties

Following these elections, opposition parties began negotiations about potential electoral alliances. It was speculated that two electoral blocs would be formed: a conservative bloc led by ODS, which would also include KDU-ČSL and TOP 09, with Petr Fiala as leader, and a liberal bloc composed of the Pirates and Mayors and Independents, with Ivan Bartoš as the leader.[24]

ODS leadership agreed to form an alliance on 25 October 2020, with a memorandum to be signed two days later.[25] On 27 October 2020, Fiala, Marian Jurečka, and Markéta Adamová announced that ODS, KDU-ČSL, and TOP 09 would form an electoral alliance for the next legislative election, with ODS leader Fiala as the alliance's candidate for prime minister.[26] On 11 November 2020, the parties agreed that ODS would nominate the leaders of the election lists in nine regions, KDU-ČSL in three regions, and TOP 09 in two regions.[27] The name of the alliance was announced as SPOLU, meaning "Together" in English.[28] Fiala was confirmed as the alliance's candidate for prime minister on 16 December 2020.[29]

The leadership of Mayors and Independents agreed to start negotiations on 8 October 2020.[30] The Pirates are required to ratify any alliance in an members' referendum. In a poll on 20 October 2020, 51% of Pirate members were opposed to the alliance while 43% supported it. The referendum to starting negotiations for an alliance was originally scheduled for 13 to 16 November 2020[31] but was rescheduled for 20 to 23 November 2020.[32] Among Pirate members, 695 out of 858 voted in favour of negotiations, with a turnout of 80%.[33] Ivan Bartoš was nominated to be the Pirate's election leader on 25 November 2020,[34] and was confirmed on 2 December 2020. The Pirates also offered the Green Party the possibility to join its electoral list.[35] Bartoš was confirmed as the alliance's electoral leader on 14 December 2020.[36] Pirate members voted to approve the alliance on 13 January 2021.[37]

ČSSD started to negotiate the formation of a third electoral bloc in January 2021, negotiating with the Green Party and some regional parties about the formation of a left-wing electoral alliance.[38] The Green Party stated as a condition for joining an alliance that the parties would not form a government coalition with ANO after the election.[39]

In early 2021, the Tricolour Citizens' Movement, Svobodní, the Freeholder Party of the Czech Republic, and other minor parties began negotiations about a potential alliance.[40] On 5 March 2021, these three parties confirmed the formation of a coalition, stating that they would run either in a formal electoral alliance or as a single party, depending on the new electoral law.[41] The Independence Party of the Czech Republic declared support for this coalition soon after.[42] On 23 March 2021, Tricolour leader Václav Klaus Jr. resigned from all political functions for personal reasons.[43] Zuzana Majerová Zahradníková became acting leader of the party.[44]

On 23 March 2021, a group of minor parties including the Alliance for the Future, Agrarian Democratic Party, Order of the Nation, and Democratic Green Party formed the Alliance for the Future, with Pavel Sehnal as leader.[45] The Party of Common Sense also subsequently joined the alliance.[46]

Some commentators have described the election as a "hidden referendum" on membership of the European Union (EU).[47][48][49]

Electoral system

Set of ballots for the 2021 legislative elections for the Prague voting district

During the 2017 legislative election, the 200 members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected from 14 multi-member constituencies by open list proportional representation with an electoral threshold of 5%. It was raised to 10% for two-party political alliances, 15% for three-party alliances, and 20% for alliances of four or more parties. Seats were allocated using the D'Hondt method. Voters can give preference votes to up to four candidates on a list. Candidates who receive preferential votes from more than 5% of voters are moved to the top of their list; in cases where more than one candidate receives over 5% of the preferential votes, they are ranked in order of votes received.[50]

Although it was expected that the 2021 legislative election would take place using the same electoral system, the Constitutional Court ruled on a complaint submitted by a group of senators from Mayors and Independents, KDU-ČSL, and TOP 09 that the electoral system was unproportional and favoured larger parties. It focused on the D'Hondt method, the division of the country into 14 constituencies, and the increased electoral threshold for alliances.[51] The Constitutional Court's decision, published on 3 February 2021, set the threshold for alliances at 5% and removed some provisions relating to seat allocation.[52] New provisions were put into law before the election, establishing a threshold of 5% for single parties, 8% for coalitions of two parties, and 11% for coalitions of three or more parties.[53]

Political parties

The table below lists political parties represented in the Chamber of Deputies after the 2017 legislative election.

Name Ideology Position Leader 2017 result
Votes (%) Seats
ANO Populism Centre to centre-right Andrej Babiš 29.6%
78 / 200
ODS Liberal conservatism Centre-right to right-wing Petr Fiala 11.3%
25 / 200
Pirates Pirate politics Centre to centre-left Ivan Bartoš 10.8%
22 / 200
SPD Right-wing populism Right-wing to far-right Tomio Okamura 10.6%
22 / 200
KSČM Communism Left-wing to far-left Vojtěch Filip 7.8%
15 / 200
ČSSD Social democracy Centre-left Jan Hamáček 7.3%
15 / 200
KDU-ČSL Christian democracy Centre to centre-right Marian Jurečka 5.8%
10 / 200
TOP 09 Liberal conservatism Centre-right Markéta Adamová 5.3%
7 / 200
STAN Localism Centre to centre-right Vít Rakušan 5.2%
6 / 200

Pre-election composition

Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Republic by political spectrum in December 2020.svg
Party Seats
ANO 2011 78
Civic Democratic Party 23
Czech Pirate Party 22
Freedom and Direct Democracy 19
Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia 15
Czech Social Democratic Party 14
TOP 09 7
Mayors and Independents 6
Tricolour Citizens' Movement 3
Free Bloc 2
Unified 1


ANO 2011

ANO billboard

After opinion polls in early 2021 showed ANO 2011 (ANO) falling behind the Czech Pirate Party, prime minister Andrej Babiš reacted by attacking the Pirates for their progressive stances, such as their supposed support for immigration and legalisation of drug use.[54] The party's campaign thus focused on criticism of the Pirates in early 2021.[55]

The party officially launched its campaign on 2 September 2021. Babiš promised higher pensions and measures against illegal immigration. He also attacked the opposition alliances, stating that they wanted to destroy the Visegrád Group. Babiš also talked about the defence of Czech national interests.[56] In September 2021, ANO released an election advert for Czech television which attacked the Pirates over alleged support for immigration and links to "antifa".[57][58] His campaign used the slogan "I will fight for you until my body falls apart!"[59]

Babiš was named in the Pandora Papers leak around a month later.[60] According to the leak, Babiš used offshore companies to buy French Mansion in 2009.[61]

Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia

KSČM billboard focusing on housing availability

The Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (KSČM) launched its campaign on 4 June 2021. Leader Vojtěch Filip said that a vote for KSČM meant certainty for the future. KSČM named its five priorities as help for children in need, better conditions for life and safety, the right to a dignified life and better environment, a higher minimum wage, and shorter working periods. Filip also stated his party's wish to leave NATO and establish better relationships with China and Russia.[62]

Czech Crown

The monarchist party Koruna Česká launched its campaign on 9 August 2021. The party supported TOP 09 in the 2017 elections. Chairman Radim Špaček described the program goals, to reform the Czech state from a republic to a parliamentary monarchy, to restore the historical lands of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, and revise the legal order. Deputy Chairman Petr Krátký cited a public opinion polling indicating that almost 10% of Czech citizens, especially younger voters, are in favor of a monarchy. The party's list also includes members of other small parties, such as the Conservative Party and Morava 1918.[63]

Czech Pirate Party and Mayors and Independents

Pirates and Mayors campaign

The Czech Pirate Party and Mayors and Independents (STAN) formed the liberal electoral alliance Pirates and Mayors led by Ivan Bartoš, presenting their cooperation agreement in December 2020. Priorities in the agreement included lower taxes, better availability of health care in the regions, protection of the climate, and transparent governance. The parties also agreed to support adoption of the euro.[64] Bartoš said on 11 January that the alliance's priorities during the campaign would include reform of the debt collection system, digitalisation, environmental issues, and education.[65]

Pirates and STAN launched their campaign on 18 May 2021, with the slogan "Let's give the country back its future" (Czech: Vraťme zemi budoucnost). Bartoš and Rakušan promised to regulate debt collection, raise taxes on commercial buildings, and begin preparations to adopt the euro.[66] A major focus of the alliance's platform is digitalisation of the country.[67] In response to the 2021 South Moravia tornado, Pirates and STAN interrupted their campaign.[68]

At a press conference on 24 June 2021, Pirates and STAN launched an anti-corruption campaign, publishing a list of the 10 biggest corruption cases since 1989, primarily involving ODS. The campaign also listed the 10 biggest corruption cases involving the ruling ANO.[69] In July 2021, the alliance released a poster featuring Jakub Michálek, its candidate for Minister of Justice, trying to catch a man in a suit with a lasso, accompanied with anti-corruption slogans. The campaign attracted significant media attention but was also criticised as amateurish and populist.[70][71]

The alliance relaunched its campaign in August 2021 as a reaction to declining opinion polls. The campaign began to focus more on STAN and its leader Vít Rakušan, though Bartoš remained the alliance's electoral leader and candidate for prime minister.[72] The campaign also focused more on budgetary spending and education.[73]

The final phase of the campaign was launched on 9 September 2021.[74]

Czech Social Democratic Party

The Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD) launched its campaign on 29 March 2021 with the slogan "We know what to do after Covid." The campaign focused on the solution of the COVID-19 crisis, opposition to privatization of hospitals, support for Kurzarbeit, and shorter working hours.[75]

The final phase of campaign was launched on 22 August 2021. Party leader Jan Hamáček said that ČSSD was not dead, despite low opinion polling.[76][77]

Free Bloc

The Free Bloc launched it campaign on 28 August 2021. It focused mainly on opposition to COVID-19 restrictions. It was led by MP Lubomír Volný.[78]

Freedom and Direct Democracy

SPD billboard

Freedom and Direct Democracy (SPD) launched its campaign on 15 July 2021.[79] SPD stated that the price for their participation in post-election coalition discussions would be a referendum law, and to hold a referendum on membership of the EU and NATO.[80][81]

Green Party

The Green Party launched its campaign on 29 June 2021, with the slogan "Lets Give Green to Women", focused on feminist issues and environmentalism. Besides green, the party is using pink in its campaign.[82]

People FOR

The People FOR political movement, led by political activist Mikuláš Minář, was launched on 3 December 2020, and started gathering the 500,000 signatures required for participation in the elections. Minář said that the movement does not want to be another 5% party.[83] On 24 March 2021, Minář announced the end of the movement due to low interest from voters, having collected only 39,251 signatures.[84]


Přísaha poster saying: "People who want a just Czechia live here."

Robert Šlachta, the former Director of the police unit against organized crime, formed the anti-corruption party Přísaha before the election. He launched the campaign at a meeting on 28 January 2021. Šlachta stated that he did not believe it was the right time to adopt the euro and was opposed to migrant quotas.[85]

The final phase of the campaign was launched on 25 August 2021. Přísaha introduced its regional leaders and program, under the slogan "Let's go to them!" The main campaign topic was fighting corruption and clientelism. Šlachta also stated that he wanted to make courts faster and fight for Czech identity, rejecting the euro and migration quotas. He also pledged to investigate all state contracts concluded under the state of emergency.[86] Šlachta stated that Přísaha had crowdfunded 13.8 million Czech koruna for the campaign, and calculated that the campaign would cost around 15 million CZK.[87]

The party hovered around the 5% electoral threshold in polling between May and the election.[88][89] In September 2021, Přísaha's support in opinion polls gradually declined, which was blamed on the launch of the ANO campaign.[90] Šlachta stated before voting that he believed the party would reach his goal of surpassing the 5% threshold.[91]


Billboards of running parties

Three centre-right parties, the Civic Democratic Party, KDU-ČSL, and TOP 09, formed an electoral alliance called SPOLU. Led by Petr Fiala, the alliance launched its campaign on 9 December 2020, promising to reform tax, the social and pension system, and healthcare. Its proposals included a minimum pension, a simplification of social benefits, support for education, and better use of EU funds as well as a focus on climate change. It opposes leaving the EU and supports membership of NATO. TOP 09 leader Markéta Adamová described the alliance as a centre-right liberal conservative political force.[92]

SPOLU launched its campaign on 19 May 2021 in Brno.[93] The campaign's slogan was "We will bring the Czech Republic together." Fiala said that SPOLU wants an "economically capable and educated Czechia".[94][93] SPOLU planned to use Dominik Feri as the face of an Instagram campaign targeting young voters entitled "I have a voice". In May 2021, Feri resigned from his political posts after being accused of sexual assault and rape by eight women, and the campaign was withdrawn.[95][96] In response to the 2021 South Moravia tornado, SPOLU interrupted its campaign in South Moravia and donated 1.5 million Czech koruna to help people in the affected areas.[97]

Billboards used by SPOLU

SPOLU's campaign featured a bus, known as the "positive bus", to be used for its candidates' personal campaigns. SPOLU also screened the film Women on the Run at its campaign meetings, and featured stand-up comedians including Petr Čtvrtníček in electoral adverts.[98][99] Fiala became more active on social media and travelled around the Czech Republic as part of a personal campaign.[100] In late August 2021, SPOLU used billboards featuring the leaders of ANO, KSČM, and SPD with the word "Threat", which was often juxtaposed with a billboard featuring the leaders of SPOLU with the words "Change you can trust."[101] On 4 September 2021, SPOLU reacted to the launch of ANO's campaign by launching a parody meme generator inspired by the ANO campaign and its slogan "Until my body falls apart!".[102]

SPOLU launched the final phase of their campaign on 20 September 2021 with a meeting inspired by the United States presidential campaigns.[103] In a speech, Fiala criticised Andrej Babiš' Cabinet for populism and warned against extremists. Fiala pledged that SPOLU would reduce the public debt without increasing taxes, guarantee the pro-Western orientation of the country, and digitalise public administration. He also said he wanted to solve the housing crisis. The meeting was held under the slogans "It is about everything now" and "Let's start change."[104] Around this time, prominent representatives of SPOLU visited the regions to meet with citizens.[105]

Following the television debates, SPOLU used the line "The cost of Babiš" to attack the government over inflation and the rising prices of energy and groceries. The term was first used by Fiala during a debate on Prima CNN News, before becoming a part of the alliance's billboard campaign.[106][107]

In the last polls before the election, SPOLU were polling second behind ANO.[108][1]


Svobodní campaign

The Tricolour Citizens' Movement, Svobodní, and Freeholder Party of the Czech Republic formed an electoral alliance called Tricolour–Svobodní–Soukromníci (TSS). It was led by Tricolour leader Zuzana Majerová Zahradníková.[109]

The TSS launched its campaign on 17 June 2021 with the slogan "We have right to live." It focused on traditional values and fight against COVID-19 restrictions. Majerová Zahradníková aimed at right-wing Eurosceptic voters.[110]

Televised debates

2021 Czech legislative election debates
Date Organisers
 P  Present   S  Surrogate   NI  Not invited  
1 July 2021 CNN Prima News[111] NI NI NI NI S
Stanislav Grospič
Jana Maláčová
Robert Šlachta
Zuzana Majerová Zahradníková
Radek Vondráček
Martin Kupka
Jan Farský
Tomio Okamura
19 August 2021 CNN Prima News[112] NI NI NI NI P
Vojtěch Filip
Jan Hamáček
Robert Šlachta
Zuzana Majerová Zahradníková
Karel Havlíček
Marian Jurečka
Vít Rakušan
Tomio Okamura
1 September 2021 CNN Prima News[113] P
Andrej Babiš
Marian Jurečka
Ivan Bartoš
Jan Hamáček
8 September 2021 CNN Prima News[114] NI NI NI S
Radim Fiala
Jiří Dolejš
Robert Šlachta
Petr Bajer
22 September 2021 CNN Prima News[115] S
Radek Vondráček
Tomio Okamura
Zdeněk Ondráček
Jan Hamáček
26 September 2021 Prima[116] P
Andrej Babiš
Petr Fiala
Vít Rakušan
Tomio Okamura
Vojtěch Filip
Jan Hamáček
Robert Šlachta
Zuzana Majerová Zahradníková
29 September 2021 CNN Prima News[117] NI S
Jana Černochová
Jan Lipavský
Robert Šlachta
Libor Vondráček
30 September 2021 Televize Seznam[118] S
Alena Schillerová
Marian Jurečka
Ivan Bartoš
Tomio Okamura
Stanislav Grospič
Jan Hamáček
Robert Šlachta
Libor Vondráček
Magdalena Davis
3 October 2021 Prima[119] P
Andrej Babiš
Petr Fiala
Ivan Bartoš
Tomio Okamura
6 October 2021 CNN Prima News[120] S
Alena Schillerová
Zbyněk Stanjura
Věslav Michalík
Jan Hrnčíř
Miloslava Vostrá
Jana Maláčová
Pavel Žeřábek
Libor Vondráček
6 October 2021 Česká televize[121] P
Andrej Babiš
Petr Fiala
Vít Rakušan
Tomio Okamura
Vojtěch Filip
Jan Hamáček
Robert Šlachta
Zuzana Majerová Zahradníková
7 October 2021 Nova[122] NI NI NI P
Tomio Okamura
Vojtěch Filip
Jan Hamáček
Robert Šlachta
Andrej Babiš
Petr Fiala
Ivan Bartoš

Opinion polls

Preliminary results

Winning party by region
Winning party by district
Czechia Chamber of Deputies 2021.svg
Party Votes % +/– Seats +/–
SPOLU 1,493,701 27.79 +5.36 71 +29
ANO 2011 1,458,151 27.13 –2.51 72 –6
Pirates and Mayors 839,448 15.61 –0.36 37 +9
Freedom and Direct Democracy 513,900 9.56 –1.08 20 –2
Přísaha 251,556 4.68 0 New
Czech Social Democratic Party 250,396 4.65 –2.62 0 –15
Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia 193,817 3.60 –4.16 0 –15
TricolourSvobodníSoukromníci 148,457 2.76 +1.20 0 ±0
Free Bloc 71,581 1.33 0 ±0
Green Party 53,334 0.99 –0.47 0 ±0
We Will Open Czechia 21,804 0.40 0 New
Swiss Democracy 16,822 0.31 0 New
Moravané 14,285 0.26 0 N/A
Alliance for the Future 11,531 0.21 -0.11 0 ±0
Czech Crown 8,634 0.16 0 N/A
Sources Movement 8,599 0.15 0 New 6,775 0.12 0 New
Alliance of National Forces 5,166 0.09 0 New
Pensioners 21 3,698 0.06 0 New
Moravian Land Movement 1,648 0.03 0 New
The Left 639 0.01 0 New
Right Bloc 586 0.01 +0.01 0 ±0
Invalid/blank votes 36,794 0.68
Total 5,411,292 100 200 0
Registered voters/turnout 8,274,906 65.43
Source: Volby (results), E15 (seats)
Popular vote
ANO 2011
Free Bloc
Green Party
Seating percentage
ANO 2011

Distribution of seats for individual parties

Results by parties[123][124]
PS PČR 2021 strany.svg
Party Seats +/–
ANO 2011 72 –6
Civic Democratic Party 34 +9
Mayors and Independents 33 +27
KDU-ČSL 23 +13
Freedom and Direct Democracy 20 –2
TOP 09 14 +7
Czech Pirate Party 4 –18
Seat percentage for individual parties
ANO 2011
TOP 09

Results by region

Region SPOLU ANO PaS SPD Přísaha ČSSD KSČM Others
Prague 40.0 17.5 22.6 4.6 3.4 4.0 2.1 5.8
Central Bohemia 28.7 24.9 19.5 7.8 4.6 4.6 3.5 6.4
South Bohemia 29.1 26.7 13.5 9.0 4.5 5.5 4.5 7.2
Plzeň 26.6 29.0 13.9 10.0 4.7 5.0 4.1 6.7
Karlovy Vary 20.2 33.1 14.2 12.8 4.9 3.8 3.4 7.6
Ústí nad Labem 19.8 35.6 14.0 11.9 4.4 3.2 3.9 7.2
Liberec 22.8 26.9 21.4 11.0 4.3 3.5 3.0 7.1
Hradec Králové 28.6 27.0 15.1 9.1 4.7 4.9 3.4 7.2
Pardubice 28.5 26.8 14.1 9.4 5.0 5.1 3.8 7.3
Vysočina 28.0 26.7 13.5 8.9 5.2 6.7 4.7 6.3
South Moravia 30.0 25.4 14.2 9.4 6.0 4.4 3.7 6.9
Olomouc 24.5 29.8 12.4 12.2 4.7 4.5 4.0 7.9
Zlín 27.8 27.0 13.4 11.4 4.2 4.9 3.3 8.0
Moravia-Silesia 20.6 33.7 11.1 12.8 4.9 5.4 4.0 7.5
Czech Republic 27.8 27.1 15.6 9.6 4.7 4.7 3.6 6.9
Source: [125]



The electoral coalition SPOLU won the most votes but finished with one fewer seat (71) in the Chamber of Deputies than ANO 2011, who won 72 despite a smaller vote-share. ANO had the largest number of deputies, over twice as many as the Civic Democratic Party (ODS). The Pirates and Mayors (PaS) electoral coalition came third with 37 seats. Due to preference voting, Mayors and Independents won 33 seats and the Czech Pirate Party won just 4 seats. Freedom and Direct Democracy (SPD) came fourth, and were the only other political party or electoral coalition to be elected to the Chamber.[126] The election saw the highest ever number of discarded votes for parties not meeting the 5% threshold in the history of elections in the Czech Republic, with more than 1 million, or about 20%.[127] The Czech Social Democratic Party and the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia failed to win any seats in the lower chamber for the first time since 1990, and the respective party leaders Jan Hamáček and Vojtěch Filip resigned. For the first time since the Third Czechoslovak Republic, a Communist party would not be represented in the national parliament covering the Czech lands.[128]

Political analyst Jiří Pehe of the New York University in Prague hailed the results as a "triumph for liberal democracy" and said they "signalled the end of the post-Communist era."[129] Political analyst Michal Klima told Czech public television that the result meant "an absolute change of the politics in the Czech Republic. It stabilises the country's position in the West camp. It's a huge defeat for [Babiš]."[130]

Government formation

Incumbent prime minister Andrej Babiš conceded defeat and accepted the results of the vote on the night of 9 October, saying: "That's life, we understand and accept that." Babiš also accused the opposition of a "smear campaign" during the lead-up to the election.[131] Incumbent president Miloš Zeman had indicated that he would give the prime ministerial mandate to the candidate of the largest party, not the largest coalition. Babiš described ANO's performance as a great result, but said he was not expecting a loss. He congratulated the chairman of SPOLU for becoming the largest coalition, and indicated that he was open to talks with all parties who were going to enter the new parliament, except for PaS, which he ruled out. PaS indicated that they would not join or support an ANO-led government, or a government that included SPD, calling them "parties with a corrupt past" (ANO) or parties "threatening liberal democracy" (SPD).[132]

SPD ruled out joining a coalition government with ANO but indicated that they were open to exploratory talks with ANO about providing direct or indirect support to an ANO-led minority government. SPD leader Tomio Okamura said in a press conference that passing a new law to allow national referendums, including on Czexit and possibly NATO membership, was his condition for supporting Babiš's campaign for a second term in office. Babiš left the door open to possible cooperation with SPD but indicated that this was not his first choice as he rejected a referendum on EU membership. After results showed that a potential ANO–SPD majority was mathematically impossible, Babiš indicated his willingness to form a grand coalition with SPOLU, if he were to be asked first by Zeman. Petr Just, a political scientist at the Metropolitan University Prague, said many in ODS were open to forming a government with ANO, as long as Babiš was not part of the government, while many in ANO preferred an alliance with ODS instead of SPD. SPOLU indicated that this scenario was ruled out, especially if Babiš continued as prime minister.[133][134][135][136]

After the results, SPOLU and PaS signed a memorandum to form a coalition government with Petr Fiala as prime minister.[137] Both groups said they would not work with Babiš.[138] Petr Fiala said: "The two democratic coalitions (SPOLU and Pirates and Mayors) have gained a majority and have a chance to form a majority government. We are the change. You are the change."[139] PaS leader Ivan Bartoš said talks with SPOLU "on the possibilities of forming a new government" would likely begin on 9 October. He hailed the end of the "dominance of Andrej Babiš", and said that "the democratic parties have shown that the era of chaos will probably be behind us."[140]

On 10 October, Zeman was hospitalized, creating uncertainty over how and when the government formation talks would be held.[141][142] On 11 October, a spokesman for the hospital said that Zeman's condition had stabilized, commenting: "The reason for [Zeman's] hospitalization is complications from the illnesses for which he has been receiving treatment."[143]

On 15 October, Babis announced that he was prepared to go into opposition and would not accept an offer to try to create a new government, commenting: "We will hand it over to the new coalition and we will be in opposition."[144]

On 18 October, the President of the Senate, Miloš Vystrčil, announced he had received a letter from the Central Military Hospital declaring Zeman unfit to fulfil his duties as president, and indicated plans to trigger Article 66 of the constitution to remove Zeman from office.[145] In response, the Senate announced their intention to transfer Zeman's constitutional powers to the current prime minister, Andrej Babiš, and the speaker of the Chamber of Deputies, Radek Vondráček, a member of ANO. Babiš is thereafter expected to ask Fiala to form a government.[146]


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